Volume 8, Issue 2, February 2017

European Advanced Materials Congress (EAMC - 2017), Sweden

Ashutosh Tiwari

Advanced Materials Letters, 2017, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 88-88
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2017.2001

VBRI Press is pleased to announce ‘European Advanced Materials Congress, (EAMC) during 22 – 24 August 2017, Sweden. It is a three-day international event organised by International Association of Advanced Materials (IAAM), Linkoping University and VBRI Press AB on the Baltic Sea cruising from Stockholm-Helsinki-Stockholm by the Viking Line Cruise M/S Mariella. The goal of congress is to provide a global platform for researchers and engineers coming from academia and industry to present their research results and activities in the field of fundamental and interdisciplinary research of materials science and technology.

Chitosan-mediated fabrication of metal nanocomposites for enhanced biomedical applications

Faruq Mohammad; Hamad A. Al-Lohedan; Hafiz N. Al-Haque

Advanced Materials Letters, 2017, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 89-100
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2017.6925

Hybrid materials based on metals and natural polymers are a promising class of nanocomposites; there is an increasing interest in metal nanoparticles (NPs) due to some fascinating characteristics associated with their nanosizes such as optical, conducting, catalytic, mechanical, sensing and superparamagnetic properties. Despite these favorable properties, the natural tendency of NPs for aggregation, high reactivity due to surface charges, and high rate of toxicity are limiting their applicability in biomedical sector. Chitosan, a naturally available amino polysaccharide biopolymer obtained from the exoskeleton of crustaceans (crabs and shrimp) and cell walls of fungi, displays unique polycationic, porous, chelating, bioadhesive and film-forming properties. The in-built characteristics of chitosan biopolymer can be utilized to alter the negative shades of metal NPs, thereby enhancing the applications in many different areas. The incorporation of chitosan significantly affects the steric stabilization of metal colloids, creates extra functional groups for biomolecule conjugation, renders the NPs suitable for bio-markers, protects metal ions from further oxidation/reduction by means of polymer coordination and has a control over toxicity. Thus by taking advantage of the additional features offered by the combination of chitosan and metal NPs, this report is designed to provide an overview about the metal NPs type, synthesis and applications in bioengineering and biomedical sector. Starting with the influencing properties due to their combination, we further reviewed the literature related to chitosan and metal NPs applicable for medicine with a specific focus on cancer diagnosis and treatment, advanced drug delivery, tissue engineering and surgical aids, to mention some.

Synthesis and characterization of sputtered nanostructured ZnO films: Effect of deposition time and pressure on contact angle behavior of ethylene glycol and water

Kartik H. Patel; Sushant K. Rawal

Advanced Materials Letters, 2017, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 101-106
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2017.6472

This paper is aimed to explore structural, optical and wettability aspects of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructured thin films prepared by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering from a zinc target using gas mixtures of helium and oxygen. The increase of deposition time from 40 to 110 minutes improves evolution of (100), (002) and (110) peaks for ZnO films whereas its (101) peak is evident at deposition time of 110 minutes. At sputtering pressure of 0.5Pa only (100) and (110) peaks are observed. The crystallinity of ZnO films decreases as the sputtering pressure is increased from 0.5 to 8.0Pa. The average crystallite size of films increases from 14nm to 18nm when deposition time is increased from 40 to 110 minutes and from 11nm to 17nm when deposition pressure is raised from 0.5Pa to 8.0Pa. We have studied wettability of water and ethylene glycol for deposited nanostructured ZnO films. The maximum value of contact angle; transmission and energy band gap were 106˚, 87% and 3.27eV respectively for deposited nanostructured thin films.

Synthesis of nanostructured TiO2 thin films with highly enhanced photocatalytic activity by atom beam sputtering

Jaspal Singh; Kavita Sahu; Sini Kuriakose; Nishant Tripathi; D. K. Avasthi; Satyabrata Mohapatra

Advanced Materials Letters, 2017, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 107-113
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2017.6432

Nanostructured TiO2 thin films with highly enhanced photocatalytic activity were prepared by atom beam sputtering technique. The effects of thermal annealing on the structural, morphological and photocatalytic properties of TiO2 thin films were investigated using X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction studies showed that the as-deposited TiO2 thin films made up of anatase TiO2 nanoparticles transformed into anatase/ rutile mixed-phase TiO2 nanoparticles upon annealing. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy studies revealed growth of TiO2 nanoparticles from 16 nm to 29 nm upon annealing at 600  o C. The photocatalytic activities of the nanostructured TiO2 thin films were studied by monitoring photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue in water. Our results showed that the as-deposited nanostructured TiO2 thin films exhibited highly enhanced photocatalytic efficiency as compared to the annealed samples. The mechanism underlying the enhanced photocatalytic activity of nanostructured TiO2 thin film is tentatively proposed.

Mixed-conductive membrane composed of natural hematite and Ni0.8Co0.15Al0.05LiO2-δ for electrolyte layer-free fuel cell

Chen Xia; Muhammad Afzal; Baoyuan Wang; Aslan Soltaninazarlou; Wei Zhang; Yixiao Cai; Bin Zhu

Advanced Materials Letters, 2017, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 114-121
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2017.7065

Very recently, natural hematite has been developed as an electrolyte candidate for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), because of its considerable ionic conductivity. In this work, to exploit more practical applications of natural hematite, we report a novel mixed-conductive composite made of natural hematite (α-Fe2O3) and semiconductor Ni0.8Co0.15Al0.05LiO2-δ (NCAL) to act as membrane layer in a new SOFC technology, electrolyte-layer free fuel cell (EFFC). The Hematite-NCAL composite was synthesized directly from natural hematite and commercial NCAL by solid-state blending and high-temperature calcination. The EFFC were constructed into a sandwich architecture with Hematite-NCAL as the membrane and NCAL pasted-Ni foams as the electrodes. Electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) and direct current (DC) polarization measurements were carried out to investigate the electrical conductivity of the composite. A high ionic conductivity of 0.16 S cm -1 is achieved by the composite at 600 o C with mass ratios of 7:3 (7Hematite: 3NCAL). When operated at low temperatures, the as-designed fuel cell demonstrated superior power densities of 554 mW cm -2 at 600 o C and 342 mW cm -2 at 500 o C. Considering the competitive cost, abundant resource and eco-friendliness of natural hematite, our findings indicate the Hematite-NCAL can be a highly promising candidate for advanced low-temperature SOFC applications.

Impact of annealing temperature on martensite transformations and structure of quaternary Ti50Ni47.7Mo0.3V2 alloy

Anatoliy Klopotov; Victor Gunther; Ekaterina Marchenko; Gulsharat Baigonakova; Timofey Chekalkin; Ji-soon Kim; Ji-hoon Kang

Advanced Materials Letters, 2017, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 122-127
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2017.7023

Within the wide family of shape memory alloys (SMAs), TiNi-based alloys are characterized by unique characteristics, with good workability in the martensite phase and good resistance to corrosion and fatigue. In the nearest future, TiNi-based SMAs are expected the second birth to begin regarding their practical application, especially in creating a new material generation showing enhanced characteristics for clinical goals. Such a kind of expectations is naturally supposed to make a search among alloying elements for TiNi-based SMAs, as well as studies of adjacent effects in order to improve material properties. The objective of the work is to investigate the effect of heat treatment on the structure and properties of the quaternary Ti50Ni47.7Mo0.3V2 SMA, as potentially promising for medical devices. Specimens were prepared and annealed at 723, 923, 1123 K for 1 h. It was found that the studied alloy was in a multiphase state: TiNi-based intermetallic in three crystallographic modifications (austenite B2-phase and martensitic R- and B19¢structures) and secondary Ti2Ni(V) phase. The increase of the annealing temperature doesn't affect the martensite transformation (MT) sequence B2«R«B19′, but leads to a growth in lattice parameter of the parent phase. The most remarkable effect on the studied alloy was at 723 K. Volume fraction of Ti2Ni(V) precipitates in the structure was also maximum. It owes their presence to the shift of the MT points toward the lower temperature range. The temperature vs resistivity r(T) curves show a characteristic shape, which is typical for TiNi-based SMAs with a two-step nature of the B2«R«B19′ MT.

Green approach: Nanocrystalline titania-based sulfonic acid catalyst for the synthesis of piperazinyl-quinolinyl pyran derivatives

Arul Murugesan; Robert M Gengan; Anand Krishnan

Advanced Materials Letters, 2017, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 128-135
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2017.7040

A nanocrystalline titania-based sulfonic acid material was prepared, characterized and used as an effective, efficient and re-usable catalyst for the synthesis of 2-amino-4-(2-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl) quinolin-3-yl)-6-phenyl-4H-pyran-3-carbonitriles and 2-amino-4-(2-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)quinolin-3-yl)-6-(pyridin-4-yl)-4H-pyran-3-carbonitrile derivatives under solvent-free conditions.  This simple three component one-pot synthesis results in high yield products in 2 hours via conventional heating protocols.  The catalyst was characterized by XRD, TEM, SEM, BET and Raman spectroscopy. The catalyst was recycled 5 times and recorded a decrease of 10 % in catalytic activity making it cost effective for large scale production.

Rapid fabrication of high density C/C composite by coupling of processes

T. S. K. Raunija; R. K. Gautam; S.C. Sharma; A. Verma

Advanced Materials Letters, 2017, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 136-144
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2017.6673

The main objective of the work was to rapidly prepare high density short carbon fiber reinforced randomly oriented C/C composite by coupling the processes. The C/C composite was fabricated by coupling two processes. In primary high pressure HP method, medium density C/C composite was prepared by mixing the exfoliated carbon fibers and PMP with distilled water; moulding of the slurry; drying of the green cake; hot-pressing of the preform and finally carbonizing the compact. In secondary low pressure ITC method, the medium density C/C composite was densified by SMP in three repeated cycles to obtain high density. The composite was characterized for microstructure, density, porosity, hardness, flexural strength, compressive strength and permeability. The results showed that the coupling of primary method with secondary method resulted in fine microstructure, high density (1.70 g/cm 3 ), excellent mechanical properties (flexural strength 77 MPa and compressive strength 161 MPa) and reduced porosity & permeability.

Cerium removal by activated carbon derived from palm kernel shell

Chee-Heong Ooi; Akane Ito; Tsubasa Otake; Fei-Yee Yeoh

Advanced Materials Letters, 2017, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 145-149
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2017.7061

Palm kernel shell (PKS) was utilized as a precursor for the preparation of activated carbon (AC) via different carbonization temperatures and carbon dioxide gas activation processes. The physical and chemical properties of the AC samples were studied by TGA, nitrogen adsorption analysis and SEM. The results show that the AC sample with BET surface area up to 622 m 2 g -1 and total pore volume of 0.297 cm 3 g -1 with narrow pore size of 1.2 nm were obtained. The SEM shows that more pores were revealed on the surface of AC after the carbonization and activation processes. The AC samples carbonized at 500 and 600 °C (CA-500 and CA-600) exhibited higher Ce removal percentage (99.94 %) than that of the other samples. Higher BET surface area of the CA-500 and CA-600 samples resulted in slightly more Ce ions to be adsorbed and precipitated compared to that of other samples. The result indicates that high pH value and BET surface area of AC sample has a rather strong influence on Ce removal. AC samples show excellent Ce removal capacity, thereby; the results suggest that the PKS-based AC could be a promising adsorbent for the cerium removal application.

Experimental study of the effect of strong shock heated test gases with cubic zirconia

V. Jayaram; K. P. J. Reddy

Advanced Materials Letters, 2017, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 150-155
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2017.6379

This paper presents a novel method of interaction of zirconia with strong shock wave in presence of dissociated/non-dissociated gas species for short duration using shock tube. Cubic zirconia (c-ZrO2) was synthesized by solution combustion method and exposed to strong shock heated N2 and O2 test gases in a free piston driven shock tube (FPST). FPST is used to heat the test gases to very high temperature of about 7540-9530 K (estimated) and reflected shock pressure of about 65-70 bar for short duration (2-3 ms). X-ray diffraction (XRD) study shows the phase transformation of c-ZrO2 to m-ZrO2. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images shows the formation of sharp nano/micro zirconia needles due to melting and nucleation during super heating and cooling at the rate of about 10 6 K/s. These types of sharp nano/micro needles are observed for the first time in this shock tube experiment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy show no change in electronic structure and chemical composition of ZrO2 which indicates that the reaction is fully catalytic. This unique experimental methodology can be used to study the chemistry of materials under extreme thermodynamic conditions which is of seminal importance in space, nuclear and other high temperature applications.

Impact of newly synthesized water soluble photoluminescent ZnS-L-Cysteine: Core-shell nanoparticles in defining the in-situ opto-electronic orbital model

Vaishali Shukla; Bhargav Raval; Man Singh

Advanced Materials Letters, 2017, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 156-162
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2017.7078

An intermolecular charge and electron transfer processes in photoluminescent ZnS- L-Cysteine: core-shell Nanoparticles (NPs) extend highly sensitive and variable valence at the core (ZnS)-shell (L-Cysteine) interface primarily due to an extensive mixing of materials frontier orbital (i.e. covalency). Water soluble, ZnS- L-Cysteine: core-shell photo luminescent NPs achieved by straight forward micellar route that is thrust area of research in nanoscience for the control particle size and remarkable properties through chemical co-precipitation method. In the paper we studied, the synthesis of CTAB capped ZnS NPs as well ZnS- L Cysteine: core-shell NPs and examined by their composition, particle size and optical and luminescent properties. The NPs stabilized with CTAB and demonstrated the regular ZnS blue emission on recombination over ZnS band-crevice from shallow electron traps at 490 nm. The onset of the absorption was 80 nm blue shifts moved from 345 nm (bulk) to 265 nm, showing a quantum size impact. Quantum mechanical effect of light applied especially in semiconducting NPs through optoelectronic orbital model, which detect and control the light through electronic devices.

Spectroscopic identification of ultranano-crystalline phases within amorphous/nano-crystalline silicon

Mansi Sharma; Deepika Chaudhary; S. Sudhakar; Preetam Singh; K. M. K. Srivatsa; Sushil Kumar

Advanced Materials Letters, 2017, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 163-169
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2017.6451

The structural transition in accordance to nano sized grain distribution within the amorphous silicon matrix has been described on the basis of spectroscopic analysis as a result of variable input power applied during growth via plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process. For this, characterization techniques like micro-ellipsometer, Raman, Field emission Scanning electron microscope (FESEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) have been effectively utilized to identify transitions in these films particularly in terms of crystallite size (within 1-4 nm) and optical constants. These results indicate that at and above 30 W applied power the separation of two zones takes place as ultranano to nano, leading to the formation of denser matrix having uniformly distributed nano-crystallites. Moreover, these results indicate the presence of unrevealed fine crystallites (ultranano-crystalline phase) as a dominating part of grain boundaries, which may be as ultranano-crystallite phase.  The blending of fine nano-crystallites within the amorphous phase might be the possible reason for the formation of nano-crystallites from ultranano-crystallites.

A study on thermal and optical properties of glycine sodium nitrate crystals

M. P. Deshpande; Vivek P. Gujarati; Kiran N. Patel; S.H. Chaki

Advanced Materials Letters, 2017, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 170-173
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2017.6887

Crystals of Glycine with Sodium Nitrate (GSN) taken in concentration ratio of 1:1 were grown by slow evaporation technique. Solubility of the material was determined in double distilled water at different temperatures. Purity of the grown crystal was checked by CHN and EDAX analysis whereas crystalline nature was confirmed from powder X-ray diffraction pattern. Dielectric study of the sample was carried out between the frequency range 1Hz to 100 KHz. FTIR spectra along with Raman spectra was used to look at the presence of different chemical bonds and groups present. Optical absorption spectra recorded in UV-Vis (250-800 nm) region for the GSN crystal was analyzed to determine the optical energy bandgap of the sample. GSN crystal was thermally investigated between 323-773 K at three different heating rates (5, 10, 15 K/min) and activation energy was computed using Kissinger method.

Influence of nanoclay and incident energy on impact resistance of S2-glass/epoxy composite laminates subjected to low velocity impact

P. Rama Subba Reddy; T. Sreekantha Reddy; I. Srikanth; P. Ghosal; V. Madhu; K. Venkateswara Rao

Advanced Materials Letters, 2017, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 174-179
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2017.6473

S2-glass/epoxy composite laminates were made by varying the nanoclay content from 0-12% by weight and were subjected to low velocity impact at 50 J, 110 J and 150 J incident energy respectively. It is observed that at 50 J impact energy, which is below penetration limit of laminate the presence of nanoclay could not add any advantage in total energy absorption. As the impact energy increased to 110 J (near penetration limit), nano composite laminates have shown 37% improvement in energy absorption compared to pristine laminate.  Composite with 9% nanoclay has shown optimum performance in terms of energy absorption, penetration limit velocity and decrease in maximum displacement. Further increase of impact energy upto 150 J (above penetration limit) has not resulted in any improvement in energy absorption. Post impact analysis reveals that the total damage area of laminates increased with increase in impact energy and nanoclay content.  Fractured area of impacted laminates calculated and observed that the fractured area of laminate decreased with increase of nanoclay content. Present study highlights that besides optimum nanoclay content, optimum impact conditions also play a vital role in deriving benefits of nanocomposites. 

Glow discharge plasma polymerized nanostructured polyaniline thin film optical waveguide

Aviraj A. Jatratkar; Jyotiprakash B. Yadav; R.R. Deshmukh; Harish C. Barshilia; Vijaya Puri; R.K. Puri

Advanced Materials Letters, 2017, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 180-184
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2017.6409

In this work, glow discharge continuous wave plasma polymerization technique was used to deposit nanostructured polyaniline (PANI) thin film by varying input power. The radio frequency (RF) used for plasma polymerization was 13.56 MHz and working pressure was 0.15 mbar. It was found that, changes in the input power can be used to control the properties of the plasma polymerized PANI thin films. Highly cross-linked structure with an increase in chain length was observed from FTIR spectra with input RF power, whereas the film surface morphology was found to be highly uniform, densely packed and smooth from FE-SEM images. The surface roughness of the film was found to increase with RF power. The refractive index and adhesion of the film was found to be increased while the optical band gap and surface energy decreased with input RF power. The plasma polymerized PANI film showed outstanding optical transmission loss properties and proved itself as excellent optical waveguide.