About Journal

Advanced Materials Letters is an Open Access international scientific journal published by a non-profit organization, International Association of Advanced Materials, IAAM. Launched in June 2010 as the official journal of the International Association of Advanced Materials, IAAM, the journal publishes high-quality peer-reviewed articles on materials science, engineering, and technology. The subjects covered span through a wide range that includes materials of chemistry, physics, biology, engineering, and technology. Advanced Materials Letters will be published quarterly in 2022. Advanced...
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Hydrogen Leading the Green Energy Future

Ashutosh Tiwari

Advanced Materials Letters, 2022, Volume 13, Issue Issue 2, Pages 2202-1690
DOI: 10.5185/aml.2022.17896

Climate change demonstrates erratic weather conditions, heavy rains drought floods, landslides, soil erosion, tsunami, and extreme cold and warm weather which severely impact the livelihoods of the public. Attaining the substance by reducing carbon pollution and other greenhouse gases is the best way to control climate change. The world requires drastic action against global warming. At present, the energy crisis is a prominent challenge across the globe. The creation of energy selections that advance public health, the environment, and economics through energy is essential. Considering the suitable climate, habitat variation, and their adverse effects such as glaciers, heatwave, sea levels rise, etc., it is important to understand the climate control and framing combat policy. 

Dye Enhanced Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cell

Shawqi Al Dallal; Khalil Ebrahim Jasim

Advanced Materials Letters, 2022, Volume 13, Issue Issue 2, Pages 2202-1691
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2022.021691

Third generation solar cells, such as dye and quantum dot sensitized solar cells are attracting attention of many research groups. In this investigation we explore the role of dye extract on the enhancement of the photovoltaic properties of quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). Lead sulfide quantum dots of different sizes have been used to sensitize a nanostructured titanium oxide electrode. We compare the open circuit voltage, the short circuit current, and power conversion efficiency of QDSSCs with the same quantities as obtained for dye-enhanced system using pomegranate dye extract. An open circuit voltage of 166 mV, a short circuit current of 0.1 mA, and an efficiency of 0.32% were obtained for 2.4 nm radius lead sulfide quantum dot sensitized solar cells. Using pomegranate dye extract reveals a considerable enhancement of the above characteristics. The combined dye-quantum dot system produces an open circuit voltage of 300 mV, a short circuit current of 0.55 mA, and an efficiency of 3.4%. For 3.2 nm radius QDs, the efficiency is substantially higher, reaching about 7%. A model describing the structure and processes leading to the above enhancement of the assembled solar cell characteristics is presented. In this model we explain the interplay between the transfer of electrons between the dye, quantum dots, and subsequent injection in the wide band gap titanium dioxide semiconductor. 

Investigation of Thermal behaviour of Swelling Anti-Fire Composite Materials Identified with RFID Technology

Kamil Janeczek; Mateusz Kosyl; Aneta Araźna; Michał Czaiński; Krzysztof Lipiec; Wojciech Stęplewski; Marek Kościelski

Advanced Materials Letters, 2022, Volume 13, Issue Issue 2, Pages 2202-1692
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2022.021692

Passive fire protections are one of the safety systems which are installed commonly in buildings. As every kind of such systems these protections have to controlled according to legal regulations. To facilitate periodic checks RFID technology can be successfully used. In this paper, thermal behaviour of produced swelling materials suitable for passive fire protection was examined and thermal endurance of RFID tags used to identify these protections was analysed as well. The results achieved in this study showed expected thermal behaviour of the swelling materials which fulfilled the whole space of the protections blocking spreading fire and smoke. Further, it was noticed that a gasket sealant and a high-temperature silicone allowed to decrease temperature affecting RFID tags. Paper-face and hard RFID tags withstood the applied thermal exposure and their readability was restored after cooling down the tags to about 120°C. This means that it is likely that these tags can resist small fire incidents on condition that temperature affecting the tags does not exceed a decomposition temperature of materials used for their production.  

Fabrication of n+-poly-Si/p+-c-Si tunnel diode using Low-pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition for Photovoltaic Applications

Vineet Kumar Singh

Advanced Materials Letters, 2022, Volume 13, Issue Issue 2, Pages 2202-1693
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2022.021693

In this paper, an n+-poly-silicon/p+-crystalline-silicon tunnel diode has been fabricated and characterized. The n+ poly-silicon layer is deposited by the low-pressure chemical vapor deposition method, while a diffusion furnace is used for boron diffusion in crystalline silicon. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction pattern have been used for structural characterization. Hall measurement and current-voltage characteristics have been used for carrier density, mobility, current density, and contact resistance measurement. Hall measurement reveals the carrier density of ~1019 cm-3 in phosphorus-doped poly-silicon tunnel layer with mobility of  ~5.4 cm2   V-1-s-1. The current-voltage characteristics of the tunnel diode show the current density of ~103 Ampere/cm2 at a voltage of 0.1 Volt. Using tunnel diode, an n+-poly-Si/p+-c-Si/n-c-Si/n+-c-Si structure has been fabricated for photovoltaic application. This structure generates a current density of  ~17.9 mA/cm2 and a voltage of 601 mV for a 195±10 nm thick doped poly-silicon layer. Further, to improve the solar cell’s performance, a thin layer of poly-silicon has been used. 

Microstructural Evolution for Super304H Austenite Steel used in China Plants

Chang Che; Shaohai Ma; Qingchuan Pan; Kai Yan; Gong Qian

Advanced Materials Letters, 2022, Volume 13, Issue Issue 2, Pages 2202-1694
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2022.021694

Super304H (18Cr-9Ni-3Cu-Nb-N) austenite steel has high creep strength and has been used as the material of tubes in 600 class supercritical power plants in China. Many Super304H materials have run for more than 100,000 hours. Long-time service feature of these austenitic stainless steels has not been understood. An understanding of the long-term microstructural evolution under actually used conditions is a key for the improvement of these heat resistant steels. In this article, creep behavior of Super304H used in China plants was analyzed, microstructural evolution of Super304H materials after different service conditions were studied involving in optical microscope, TEM and SAXS. The results show, M23C6, Cu-rich particles, and σ phase were found to precipitate. A quantitative assessment of microstructure evolution was given during long-term creep.

Structural and Optical Studies of Quaternary Glass System

G. Upender; V. Chandra Mouli; V. Sreenivasulu; Praveena Kuruva; M. Prasad

Advanced Materials Letters, 2022, Volume 13, Issue Issue 2, Pages 2202-1695
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2022.021695

The new tellurite glasses with chemical composition 64TeO2-15CdO-(20-x) ZnO-xLi2O-1V2O5 (x= 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mol %) were synthesized by traditional melt quench hardening method. The glass samples showed broad humps of typical amorphous phase in the X- ray diffraction patterns. The physical properties of glass samples such as density (ρ), molar volume (Vm), oxygen packing density (OPD), refractive index (n), molar refractivity (Rm) and metallization parameter (M) were estimated. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) studies exhibited that replacement of ZnO by Li2O forms significantly some basic structural units of TeO4, TeO3/TeO3+1 and ZnO4. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was employed to find out the glass transition temperature (Tg) and thermal stability ( ). The optical enthrallment studies exhibited that the cut-off wavelength (λ) decreases while optical energy gap (Eopt) and Urbach energy ( ) values increases with an increase an escalation of Li2O content. This tellurite glasses possess an important use such as sensor devices, storage of data system and industrial applications etc.

Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Gd-Doped ZnO Nanorods

Pramod Kumar Yadawa; Navin Chaurasiya; Sachin Rai

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 11, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2021.111681

All the elastic, mechanical and thermal properties of Gd-doped ZnO nanorods (NRs) have studied using interaction potential model. Gd-doped ZnO nanorods are hexagonal wurtzite structure. The characteristic features of elastic characteristics of Gd-doped ZnO NRs imply that this is mechanically stable. For mechanical characterization, bulk modulus (B), shear modulus (G), Young's modulus (Y), Pugh's ratio (B / G), Poisson’s ratio and anisotropic index are evaluated using second order elastic constants. For the investigation of anisotropic behaviour and thermophysical properties, ultrasonic velocities and thermal relaxation time have been also calculated along with different orientations from the unique axis of the crystal. The mechanical properties of the Gd-doped ZnO nanorods are better than at 6% Gd amount due to minimum attenuation. The obtained results are analyzed to explore the characteristic of ZnO nanorods. Computed elastic, ultrasonic and thermal properties are correlated to evaluate the microstructural behaviour of the materials useful for industrial applications

Recent Applications of Magnesium Oxide (MgO) Nanoparticles in various domains

Manuel Fernandes; Kshitij RB Singh; Tanushri Sarkar; Pooja Singh; Ravindra Pratap Singh

Advanced Materials Letters, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 8, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2020.081543

Magnesium oxide nanoparticles have emerged as a potential candidate for meeting ends of various problems due to its unique properties such as biodegradability, non-toxicity, inhibition of biofilm growth and degradation of harmful dyes such as methyl violet and many more. Along with its easy synthesis by methods such as sol-gel technique, precipitation method, and green synthesis, it is widely applicable for toxic waste remediation, antibacterial materials, removal of industrial pollutants and also used in anti-arthritic and anti-cancer activities. Prior reviews have laid focus on singular domains whereas our review clubs three major domains i.e., clinical, agricultural and environmental that are involved in the day to day life of plants as well as animals. Besides the above information, properties, synthesis, nanotoxicity and future perspectives of magnesium oxide nanoparticles have also been elaborated in this review.

The Emerging Global Trends in Hydrogen Energy Research for Achieving the Net Zero Goals

Ashutosh Tiwari

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 10, Pages 1-5
DOI: 10.5185/aml.2021.15697

As the world is entering a phase of realization to mend ways to build a climate-neutral, healthy, and sustainable environment all around and many prominent steps are taken to achieve the goal of net-zero. The advancement of materials used for energy and production purposes is being transformed and developed in ways that will ensure sustainable development without harming of the ecology. One such strong action brought is the use of hydrogen energy towards climate neutrality. Hydrogen is now considered a very important product for aiming at zero waste as it can make it possible to remove fossil fuels usage and will play a very important role in the energy transformation of the world to sustainable development goals. It is very important to reduce the emission of carbon from industries and vehicles and at the same time give longer energy storage. As the European Deal and the United Nations move forward for attaining net-zero goals with the introduction of clean hydrogen energy and its uses have been the showstopper for various conversions in various sectors which will ensure reaching global sustainability. 

Plant Mediated Synthesis Of Gold Nanoparticles Using Fruit Extracts Of Ananas Comosus (L.) (Pineapple) And Evaluation Of Biological Activities

Nagaraj Basavegowda; Agnieszka Sobczak-Kupiec; Dagmara Malina; Yathirajan HS; Keerthi V R; Chandrashekar N; Salman Dinkar; Liny P

Advanced Materials Letters, 2013, Volume 4, Issue 5, Pages 332-337
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2012.9423

AnchorPlant mediated synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is an increasing commercial demand due to the wide applicability in various areas such as electronics, catalysis, chemistry, energy, cosmetics and medicine. In the present investigation, synthesis of gold nanoparticles is done by using fruit extracts of Ananas comosus (L.). Nanoparticles were characterized by using UV visible absorption spectra. Their morphology, elemental composition and crystalline phase were determined by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and selected area electron diffraction. FT-IR analysis was used to confirm the presence of gold nanoparticles in the extracts. The synthesized gold nanoparticles were generally found to be effective as antimicrobial agents against some important human pathogens like E.coli and Streptobacillus sp. which are affecting and cause diseases like food poisoning and rat-bite fever to human beings respectively.

Carboxymethyl Chitosan And Its Applications

V.K Mourya; Nazma N. Inamdara;Ashutosh Tiwari

Advanced Materials Letters, 2010, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 11-33
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2010.3108

Deacetylation of chitin affords chitosan, a polymer, widely studied for its pharmaceutical and nonpharmaceutical applications. The hurdle in comprehending these applications is its limited solubility. Carboxymethylation of chitosan helps to surmount this hurdle with its improved solubility in water. Though there is ample of research related to carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) the focused review of the topic is unavailable. Hence an attempt is made in this review to cover the recent findings pertaining to synthesis, characterization of CMC and its applications especially in pharmaceutical field. CMC has been synthesized by ways as direct alkylation, reductive alkylation, Michael addition and characterized by FTIR, NMR spectroscopy, and DSC, titrimetry, viscometry, gel permeation chromatography, X-ray diffraction and capillary zone electrophoresis. The carboxymethyl group can be present at O or N or both the atoms of chitosan molecule. The CMC possess modulated physical and biological properties as chelating, sorption, moisture retention, cell functioning antioxidant, antibacterial, antiapoptotic etc. CMC is used in sustained or controlled release drug delivery, pH responsive drug delivery, DNA delivery as permeation enhancer etc. CMC can be further modified with alkylation, acylation, and grafting. Carboxyalkylation of chitosan yield carboxyethyl, carboxybutyl chitosans. These analogues of CMC may be helpful in substantiating the applications of chitosan.

Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Gd-Doped ZnO Nanorods

Pramod Kumar Yadawa; Navin Chaurasiya; Sachin Rai

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 11, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2021.111681

All the elastic, mechanical and thermal properties of Gd-doped ZnO nanorods (NRs) have studied using interaction potential model. Gd-doped ZnO nanorods are hexagonal wurtzite structure. The characteristic features of elastic characteristics of Gd-doped ZnO NRs imply that this is mechanically stable. For mechanical characterization, bulk modulus (B), shear modulus (G), Young's modulus (Y), Pugh's ratio (B / G), Poisson’s ratio and anisotropic index are evaluated using second order elastic constants. For the investigation of anisotropic behaviour and thermophysical properties, ultrasonic velocities and thermal relaxation time have been also calculated along with different orientations from the unique axis of the crystal. The mechanical properties of the Gd-doped ZnO nanorods are better than at 6% Gd amount due to minimum attenuation. The obtained results are analyzed to explore the characteristic of ZnO nanorods. Computed elastic, ultrasonic and thermal properties are correlated to evaluate the microstructural behaviour of the materials useful for industrial applications

Biological approach of zinc oxide nanoparticles formation and its characterization

Ravindra P. Singh; Vineet K. Shukla; Raghvendra S. Yadav; Prashant K. Sharma; Prashant K. Singh; Avinash C. Pandey

Advanced Materials Letters, 2011, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 313-317
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.indias.204

Herein, we are reporting a novel biological approach for the formation of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles using Maddar (Calotropis procera) latex at room temperature. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) pattern reveals the formation of ZnO nanoparticles, which shows crystallinity. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) suggested particles size and shape in the range of 5-40 nm. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image reveals that the particles are of spherical and granular nature. UV-Vis absorption shows characteristic absorption peak of ZnO nanoparticles. Photoluminescence (PL) studies were performed to emphasize its emission properties. This simple and cost-effective biological approach for the formation of ZnO NPs has a promising application in biosensing, electronics and photonics.

Nanoscale Device for Veterinay Technology: Trends And Future Prospective

Neeraj Dilbaghi; Harmanmeet Kaur; Ritesh Kumar; Pooja Arora; Sandeep Kumar

Advanced Materials Letters, 2013, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 175-184
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2012.7399

Nanotechnology is an interdisciplinary science comprising of various disciplines such as physics, chemistry, electronics, material science, health science, biology and veterinary science. The ability to manufacture and manipulate material at nanoscale has offered opportunities to interface biological systems with outer world in new ways and with unprecedented precision. Veterinary science deals with all non human animals including wildlife and domesticated animals, livestock, working animals and companion animals. Nanotechnology has contributed in revolutionizing health and veterinary sciences by providing new tools and new materials for molecular and cellular biology that are beneficial for living organisms. The variety of nanomaterials that are used for diagnosis and treatment include metallic nanoparticle, quantum dots, carbon nanotubes, magnetic nanoparticles, fullerenes, liposomes, dendrimers and engineered hybrid nanoparticles. However, at present, little data is available on the ecotoxicological and toxicological effects associated with these nanomaterials and hence there is a need to address these issues as physiological properties of nanomaterials are expected to influence their biological response. It is believed that in the upcoming years, nanotechnology will reform the science and technology of the animal health and will help to boost up the livestock production. Nanotechnology based techniques like bioanalytical nanosensors, nanofluidics, targeted drug delivery etc has the potential to solve problems related to diagnosis and treatment of diseases. In this review, we emphasize on how nanotechnology is swiftly changing the diagnosis and treatment patterns at faster and low cost in less time duration. There can be numerous applications of nanotechnology in disease diagnosis, treatment, drug delivery, animal nutrition, animal breeding, tissue engineering and animal identity verification. The role of nanotechnology in veterinary sciences is chiefly discussed as how nanomaterials can modernize the present life.

Recent Applications of Magnesium Oxide (MgO) Nanoparticles in various domains

Manuel Fernandes; Kshitij RB Singh; Tanushri Sarkar; Pooja Singh; Ravindra Pratap Singh

Advanced Materials Letters, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 8, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2020.081543

Magnesium oxide nanoparticles have emerged as a potential candidate for meeting ends of various problems due to its unique properties such as biodegradability, non-toxicity, inhibition of biofilm growth and degradation of harmful dyes such as methyl violet and many more. Along with its easy synthesis by methods such as sol-gel technique, precipitation method, and green synthesis, it is widely applicable for toxic waste remediation, antibacterial materials, removal of industrial pollutants and also used in anti-arthritic and anti-cancer activities. Prior reviews have laid focus on singular domains whereas our review clubs three major domains i.e., clinical, agricultural and environmental that are involved in the day to day life of plants as well as animals. Besides the above information, properties, synthesis, nanotoxicity and future perspectives of magnesium oxide nanoparticles have also been elaborated in this review.

Solid State Thermochromic Materials

Pragna Kiria; Geoff Hyett; Russell Binions

Advanced Materials Letters, 2010, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 86-105
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2010.8147

Solid-state thermochromic materials undergo semiconductor to metal transitions at a ‘critical temperature’, Tc. This review begins by describing the phenomenon of thermochromism, whereby the optical properties of a material change reversibly as a result of a change in temperature. The various different types of thermochromism will be introduced with a focus on the thermochromism exhibited by solid-state materials. The fundamental chemical principles that describe the electronic structure and properties of solids, and the chronological developments in the theory behind the thermochromic transitions (such as, the effects of electron-electron interactions and structural phase changes due to lattice distortions) that led to the discovery of the semiconductor-to-metal transition, are presented. An extensive discussion of vanadium and titanium oxides is presented with a particular focus on vanadium (IV) oxide since its transition temperature is closest to room temperature. Observations and current understanding of the nature of the semiconductor-to-metal transition exhibited by these materials is detailed. The possibility of fine-tuning the transition temperature by introducing various dopants into the vanadium (IV) oxide lattice is examined and the effects of dopant charge and size is examined. Solid-state thermochromic materials may be exploited in areas such as microelectronics, data storage, or intelligent architectural glazing, thus are required to be synthesised as thin films for use in such applications. The numerous synthetic techniques (PVD, sol-gel method, PLD, CVD, APCVD and AACVD), for making metal oxide thermochromic thin films are described in reference to the production of vanadium (IV) oxide and compared. Finally rare earth nickelates exhibiting thermochromism are described.

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Invite Proposals for the special issue
International Association of Advanced Materials, IAAM invites scholars to submit proposals via email to publication@iaamonline.org for a special issue to publish in the Advanced Materials Letters: ...

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