About Journal

Advanced Materials Letters is a leading Diamond Open Access (DOA) international scientific journal published by a non-profit organisation, International Association of Advanced Materials, IAAM. Launched in June 2010 as the official journal of the International Association of Advanced Materials, IAAM, the journal publishes high-quality peer-reviewed articles on materials science, engineering, and technology. The subjects covered span through a wide range that includes materials of chemistry, physics, biology, engineering, and technology.    Advanced Materials Letters is...
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Transforming Energy Technologies for Climate Neutrality Goals

Ashutosh Tiwari

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 9, Pages -
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2021.091658

The world is facing major problems related to global warming, climate change, anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, and environmental degradation. They implicate a major worry to take immediate measures to rectify the ways and methods to build a clean world for the future generation to live blissfully. The technological revolution paves a way to combat the current terrible situation using numerous sustainable measures by the advancement of materials. The clean energy transition is mostly adopting in the transport and mobility sectors for reducing the emissions of vehicles. The present scenario of the global climate sets urgent needs to demonstrate country-wise a long-term policy for clean, renewable, and net-zero waste power generation in line with climate neutrality goals.

From Zero to Infinity: Customized Atomistic Calculations for Crystalline Solids —Applications to Graphene and Diamond

Aristides D. Zdetsis; Shanawer Niaz

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 9, Pages 1-1
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2021.091659

We demonstrate that a suitable atomistic method with judicially selected nanoclusters/ nanocrystals (in real space) supplemented with general symmetry and dimensionality arguments, can give surprisingly good results for macroscopic properties of the infinite crystalline solid, such as bandgaps, cohesive energies, as well as aromaticity (if any), at minimal computational cost and maximum physical insight. For graphene on top of these properties the present approach can successfully describe in real space and illuminate many of its exotic properties, which are usually introduced in k-space, such as Dirac points or topological insulators. An early version of this methodology has been very successfully applied and extrapolated to Si, Be, BeH, CdSe, MgH, crystals and nanocrystals, with almost chemical accuracy in most cases. Here, after a pedagogical and critical review of the earlier results, we introduce a new combined and expanded approach to comparatively describe the electronic and cohesive properties of diamond and graphene. For the later a drastically enlarged sequence of “nanocrystals” of well-chosen geometries and sizes up to 1440 atoms or 8190 electrons is used to verify earlier predictions and results.  We have obtained in a simple and fast way the bandgap (5.4 eV) and the cohesive energy (7.34 eV/atom) of diamond with almost chemical accuracy; and we have fully rationalized (in a different perspective and prospective) the electronic and cohesive properties of graphene, with a tentative value of cohesive energy of 7.52 eV/atom. Strangely enough this value is larger than the one for diamond and is currently under investigation. Finally, we suggest that this methodology in its current simple and transparent form can be a first-line diagnostic, functional, and inexpensive computational tool. This is particularly true for quick assessments and comparative estimates, size-dependence studies, or cases where standard k-space methods or other advanced techniques either fail or demand unavailable computational resources.

Finite Element Analysis and Design of Test Setup for Determination of Transfer Length in BFRP Prestressed Concrete Beams

Arghadeep Laskar; Prashant Motwani; Shruti Dhruw

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 9, Pages 1-1
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2021.091660

This work is a vital step in enhancing the potential use of a newly developed organic basalt fibre reinforced polymer (BFRP) bars for prestressed concrete applications. In the present study, a test setup has been designed using finite element analysis (FEA) and the various steps of prestressing such as initial prestress, effective prestress and the time dependent effects have been appropriately simulated in the finite element (FE) model. The configuration details of the test setup, such as the size and orientation of the sections and the location of the stiffener plates have been thoroughly investigated. A robust design of the setup has been established based on the FEA results. Subsequently, the FE model has been utilized to predict the transfer stage parameters for concrete beams prestressed using BFRP bars.The transfer length has been predicted from the FEA results to be 24db and 26db (where, db is the diameter of bar) when measured using the BFRP bar strains and the concrete strains, respectively. An end slip of 0.3mm has been obtained after the prestressing of concrete beams. The designed test setup will be later fabricated and utilized to perform experiments under laboratory-controlled conditions.

On the Effect of ECAP Processing Temperature on the Microstructure, Texture Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Commercial Pure Copper

A.I. Alateyah

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 9, Pages 1-1
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2021.091661

In this study, the severe plastic deformation (SPD) behavior of commercial-grade pure copper processed using equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) was investigated. The copper rods were processed for up to 4 passes, both at room temperature and 200 oC. The microstructure and texture evolution were studied using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) equipped with an electron back scattered (EBSD) detector. The effect of ECAP processing on the tensile properties, micro-hardness, and impact toughness was studied.  After 1 pass, the average grain size of the rods was determined to be 2.694 and 3.9066 μm at room temperature and 200 oC, respectively. In addition, after 4 passes through ECAP, the strength of the ECAPed samples increased to 381 MPa, and 330 MPa at room temperature and 200 oC, respectively; and the Vickers’ micro-hardness at the peripheral areas increased to 158, and 126, respectively. In the other hand, the experimental findings revealed that the number of ECAP passes has insignificant effect on the impact energy.

Infrared Nonlinear Optical Performances of (Ga2Ge)100-x(Ga3Sb2)x (x = 15, 30, 45, 60) Thin Films

Rajnish Raj; Pooja Lohia; D. K. Dwivedi

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 9, Pages 1-1
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2021.091662

The traditional melt-quench technique was used to synthesize non-oxide (Ga2Ge)100-x(Ga3Sb2)x
(x = 15, 30, 45, 60) glass alloys. The vacuum thermal evaporation unit was used to obtain thin films of prepared sample for investigation of optical properties. SEM, XRD and DSC technique were used to find the thermal and structural properties of the materials. The linear properties like optical bandgap, extinction coefficient for prepared samples have been studied in present paper of Ge-Ga-Sb for application of optoelectronics. The impurities present in the prepared thin films were defined by FTIR transmittance spectra. The extinction coefficient (k) value decreases with increase in Sb concentration while absorption coefficient (α). It was noticed that value of energy bandgap (Eg) derived from Tauc’s plot varies from 2.9 eV to 1.25 eV. Urbach energy is inversely proportional to the bandgap of the materials. As the Sb concentration increases the band gap goes on decreases which result the increase in Urbach energy. Mott and Davis model has been used for explaining decrease in energy gap of prepared glassy alloys. 

The Study on Magnetic, Optical and Anti Algal Properties of Low-Temperature Calcined Nickel Ferrite Nanoparticles

Praveena G; Mohammed E.M.; Viji C.; Shyam Kumar S.

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 9, Pages 1-1
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2021.091663

Nickel ferrite (NiFe₂O₄) nanoparticles were synthesized using the sol-gel auto combustion method, and the powdered samples were calcined at two temperatures, 100°C and 200°C. The structure of nickel ferrite nanoparticles was determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns. The nickel ferrite nanoparticle size was calculated using the Debye-Scherrer formula and was found to be 15.53 nm and 17.14 nm for 100 °Cand 200 °C. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopic (FESEM) analysis reveals that the samples exhibit spherical morphology with crystalline in nature and also show some agglomeration. The phase formation of nickel ferrite nanoparticles was further confirmed from the energy dispersive x-ray (EDAX) spectra which shows strong peaks for the existence of all the elements in it. The work investigates the magnetic properties of the samples and both the samples exhibit ferromagnetic behavior. The optical band gap obtained for the samples is 2.5 and 2.6 eV for N1 and N2 samples. The antimicrobial activity especially the anti-algal effect of NiFe₂O₄ nanoparticles on freshwater microalgae Chlorella pyrenoidosa in a dose-dependent manner is also reported.

Engineering in SnS-Based Solar Cell for an Efficient Device with Nickel Oxide (NiO) as the Hole Transport Layer

Shivendra Pratap Ray; Sadanand .; Pooja Lohia; D. K. Dwivedi

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 9, Pages 1-1
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2021.091664

Due to the versatility, non-toxicity and earth abundancy of raw material, SnS has considered a very useful semiconductor material and the harvesting of photovoltaic energy from this kind of semiconductor material is comparatively easier than others since it is highly efficient and cost-effective. The simulation of a unique combination of device structure (ITO/SnO2/SnS/NiO/Mo) has been done and found to be worthful. Past work is quite good but unable to achieve the standard of enhanced open-circuit voltage along with the power conversing efficiency as well. The use of Hole Transport Layer (HTL) has been remarkable too since surface recombination has fallen sharply. The PCE hiked by 25% to 27.62% regardless of it is practically unattainable but in reality, it will prove as a milestone in this area if and only if we are using HTL as well. The different HTL layer has been studied for the proposed device structure and elaborated well. For the benefit of mankind, it is completely low cost and useable along with quite good performance.

The Study of Prevalence of Candida Species in Oral Cavity between Habitual and Non-Habitual of Gutka Chewers in Vitro Condition

Umeshwar Narayan; Amar Prakash Garg

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 9, Pages 1-1
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2021.091665

Candida is the most common yeast existing as normal flora of oral cavity. Sometime Candida yeast can cause diseases in the oral cavity.  Immune system is weakened due to widespread use of antibiotic, immunosuppressive drugs, age, genetic, malnutrition and hormone disorder as well as HIV infection. Immunocompromised person are more sensitive Aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of Candid yeast in those persons that are habitual of chewing gutka and non-habitual. For this study, 450 oral rinse samples were collected aseptically in sterile test tube. These persons visited in dental OPD, Kalka dental college, Meerut. Groups were divided on the bases of habitual and non-habitual of gutka chewer and further clinical history of patients was recorded such as age, gender and socioeconomic status. Each sample were diluted and inoculated on Sabouraud’s Dextrose Agar medium by spread culture technique. The samples were further processed for colony characterization and biochemical test to identify Candida species. As well as measurement of pH level of the oral rinse sample were recorded with pH strip method. 414 isolates were collected from 450 samples, eight Candida species were isolated. Candida albicans were observed as dominant yeast, showed creamy colored, smooth colonies on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar medium. And observed germ tube test, psuedohyphae chlamydospore and various sugars fermentation as well as some other Candida yeasts were also isolated.

Advancing Materials towards Climate Neutrality by 2050

Ashutosh Tiwari

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 8, Pages 1-3
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2021.081650

In the new decade, International Association of Advanced Materials (IAAM) is committed with its 2030 agenda on “Advancement of Materials to Sustainable and Green World” working in line with the United Nations’ (UN) Sustainable Development Goals. The IAAM also synchronizes its agenda with the action plans of European Green Deal which is aimed to making the Europe as climate neutral by 2050 for which they have taken a set of policy initiatives. The present scenario of the world climate shows that the climate change and the environmental degradation are a major cause of worry for the whole world and an immediate treatment into the situation is the utmost need of the hour.

Development Of Nanocomposites Based On Polypyrrole And Carbon Nanotubes For Supercapacitors

Ritu P. Mahore; Devendra K. Burghate; Subhash B. Kondawar

Advanced Materials Letters, 2014, Volume 5, Issue 7, Pages 400-405
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2014.amwc.1038

Supercapacitors are recognized as one of the most promising energy storage devices for a wide range of civilian and military applications in electric vehicles, uninterruptible power supplies. Conducting polymer nanocomposites are new functional materials suitable for supercapacitors due to synergistic effect of individual components. In present work, polypyrrole/CNT nanocomposites have been prepared by an in-situ chemical polymerization method and studied for supercapacitor. CNTs were well functionalized using 3:1 ratio of H2SO4 and HNO3 before polymerizing the pyrrole. Analytical techniques such as SEM, UV-VIS and FTIR were used to characterize the synthesized materials. The SEM images reveal that the materials have rough and granular morphology. The composites showed good interaction based on the shift to longer wavelengths in the electronic transition, indicating the interaction between PPy and functionalized CNTs as observed in their UV-VIS and FTIR spectra. The electrochemical performance was evaluated by using cyclic voltammetry (CV) in 1M Na2SO4 electrolyte and specific capacitance was obtained at 0.5 V/s for pure polypyrrole and PPy/CNT nanocomposites. Nanocomposite showed the enhanced electrochemical performance as compared to that of pure polypyrrole. The specific capacitance obtained at the scan rate 0.5V/s was found to be 0.825 F/cm -2 for pure polypyrrole and 1.0619 F/cm -2 for PPy/CNT nanocomposite material respectively, indicates that PPy/CNT nanocomposite is suitable material as electrode for supercapacitor as compoared to pure polypyrrole.

Transforming Energy Technologies for Climate Neutrality Goals

Ashutosh Tiwari

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 9, Pages -
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2021.091658

The world is facing major problems related to global warming, climate change, anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, and environmental degradation. They implicate a major worry to take immediate measures to rectify the ways and methods to build a clean world for the future generation to live blissfully. The technological revolution paves a way to combat the current terrible situation using numerous sustainable measures by the advancement of materials. The clean energy transition is mostly adopting in the transport and mobility sectors for reducing the emissions of vehicles. The present scenario of the global climate sets urgent needs to demonstrate country-wise a long-term policy for clean, renewable, and net-zero waste power generation in line with climate neutrality goals.

Efficiency of Nanomaterials for Electrochemical Diagnostics based Point-of-Care Detection of Non-Invasive Oral Cancer Biomarkers

Neeraj Kumar; V. Sorna Gowri;Raju Khan; Pushpesh Ranjan; Mohd. Abubakar Sadique; Shalu Yadav; Ayushi Singhal; Alka Mishra; S. Murali

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 8, Pages 1-20
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2021.081651

Oral tumours are the sixth most incessant infection with high mortality and morbidity rates in human beings and they pose a serious threat worldwide owing to their soaring case-fatality rate and metastatic characteristics of spreading to other parts of the body. Nanomaterials as of late have become indispensable components for biosensor platforms due to their fantastic mechanical, electronic, and optical properties. Specific emphasis is laid in this review on electrochemical biosensors working at the molecular levels, which can be classified into mainly three groups i.e., DNA biosensors, RNA biosensors, and protein biosensors as indicated by the type of the analytes. The carbon-based and non-carbon-based nanomaterials utilizing electrochemical procedures for recognizing oral cancer biomarkers are also reviewed. An extensive review has been made to cover ongoing advancements in the field of nanomaterials based as electrochemical biosensors. This study mostly sums up the significant electrochemical methods, the ongoing advancements of electrochemical technique-based biosensor frameworks for the discovery of oral cancer biomarkers. This effort aims to provide the reader with a concise view of new advances in areas on oral cancer biomarkers for electrochemical signal amplification and the innovative electroanalytical techniques which have been utilized in the miniaturization and integration of the sensors.

Green Synthesis, Characterization And Optical Properties Of Zinc Oxide Nanosheets Using Olea Europea Leaf Extract

Akl M. Awwad; Borhan Albiss; Ahmad L. Ahmad

Advanced Materials Letters, 2014, Volume 5, Issue 9, Pages 520-524
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2014.5575

In this paper, a green method is reported for synthesis and characterization of zinc oxide nanosheets using Olea europea leaf extract. ZnO nanosheets were characterized by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The UV-vis absorption spectrum shows an absorption band at 374 nm due to ZnO nanosheets. XRD characterize the final product as highly crystalline ZnO with sizes in the range 18-30 nm. The SEM results reveal a presence of network of randomly oriented ZnO nanosheets or nanoplatelets with an average size of 500 nm and thicknesses of about 20 nm. This facile and green approach may provide a useful tool to large scale synthesis other nanoparticles that have potential biotechnology.

Advancing Materials towards Climate Neutrality by 2050

Ashutosh Tiwari

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 8, Pages 1-3
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2021.081650

In the new decade, International Association of Advanced Materials (IAAM) is committed with its 2030 agenda on “Advancement of Materials to Sustainable and Green World” working in line with the United Nations’ (UN) Sustainable Development Goals. The IAAM also synchronizes its agenda with the action plans of European Green Deal which is aimed to making the Europe as climate neutral by 2050 for which they have taken a set of policy initiatives. The present scenario of the world climate shows that the climate change and the environmental degradation are a major cause of worry for the whole world and an immediate treatment into the situation is the utmost need of the hour.

Efficiency of Nanomaterials for Electrochemical Diagnostics based Point-of-Care Detection of Non-Invasive Oral Cancer Biomarkers

Neeraj Kumar; V. Sorna Gowri;Raju Khan; Pushpesh Ranjan; Mohd. Abubakar Sadique; Shalu Yadav; Ayushi Singhal; Alka Mishra; S. Murali

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 8, Pages 1-20
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2021.081651

Oral tumours are the sixth most incessant infection with high mortality and morbidity rates in human beings and they pose a serious threat worldwide owing to their soaring case-fatality rate and metastatic characteristics of spreading to other parts of the body. Nanomaterials as of late have become indispensable components for biosensor platforms due to their fantastic mechanical, electronic, and optical properties. Specific emphasis is laid in this review on electrochemical biosensors working at the molecular levels, which can be classified into mainly three groups i.e., DNA biosensors, RNA biosensors, and protein biosensors as indicated by the type of the analytes. The carbon-based and non-carbon-based nanomaterials utilizing electrochemical procedures for recognizing oral cancer biomarkers are also reviewed. An extensive review has been made to cover ongoing advancements in the field of nanomaterials based as electrochemical biosensors. This study mostly sums up the significant electrochemical methods, the ongoing advancements of electrochemical technique-based biosensor frameworks for the discovery of oral cancer biomarkers. This effort aims to provide the reader with a concise view of new advances in areas on oral cancer biomarkers for electrochemical signal amplification and the innovative electroanalytical techniques which have been utilized in the miniaturization and integration of the sensors.

Effect on Structural, Electrical and Temperature Sensing behavior of Neodymium Doped Bismuth Ferrite

A. K. Sahu; Priyambada Mallick; S. K. Satpathy; Banarji Behera

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 7, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2021.071648

Synthesis of polycrystalline samples of Bi1-xNdxFeO3 [x = 0.5, 0.6, 0.7 and 0.8] were demonstrated following solid-state reaction method at high temperature. The structural properties of the sample were confirmed through the X-ray diffraction technique. The dielectric study of the compounds was performed at different frequencies in the range of 100 Hz – 10 6 Hz for various temperatures. The non-Debye type of relaxation process confirmed from impedance analysis. The materials showed a negative temperature coefficient of resistance (NTCR) behavior at various temperatures and frequencies. AC conductivity of the materials with frequency at different temperatures satisfied the universal power law of Johnscher. Thermistor constant (β), sensitivity factor (α), and stability factor for all the samples were calculated and confirmed the characteristics of NTC thermistor.

Thermomagnetic Properties of Metal and Metal-oxide Nanoparticles

Ratan Lal Jaiswal; Brijesh Kumar Pandey

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 7, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2021.071647

Variation of thermomagnetic properties of nanoparticles are the matter of great debate. To develop a suitable model for the study of magnetic properties, the size and shape dependent magnetic properties such as Curie temperature (TC), Neel temperature (TN) and magnetization (MS) of magnetic nanoparticles (Fe, Ni, Co, Fe3O4, NiO, CoO, CuO, Ho and CoFe2O4) have been studied. In the present work, bond energy model has been used with the concept of dangling bond and its effect on the surface of nanoparticles. It is observed that the introduction of packing fraction of materials to this model supports the experimental facts. The obtained results have been explained by considering the concept of dangling bond at the surface of nanoparticle and packing fraction of crystal. It is observed that these magnetic properties decrease with reducing size of nanoparticles and the available experimental data are in good agreement with present theoretical model. The validity of present model encourages us to predict the behaviour of thermomagnetic properties of other nanoparticles.

Engineering in SnS-Based Solar Cell for an Efficient Device with Nickel Oxide (NiO) as the Hole Transport Layer

Shivendra Pratap Ray; Sadanand .; Pooja Lohia; D. K. Dwivedi

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 9, Pages 1-1
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2021.091664

Due to the versatility, non-toxicity and earth abundancy of raw material, SnS has considered a very useful semiconductor material and the harvesting of photovoltaic energy from this kind of semiconductor material is comparatively easier than others since it is highly efficient and cost-effective. The simulation of a unique combination of device structure (ITO/SnO2/SnS/NiO/Mo) has been done and found to be worthful. Past work is quite good but unable to achieve the standard of enhanced open-circuit voltage along with the power conversing efficiency as well. The use of Hole Transport Layer (HTL) has been remarkable too since surface recombination has fallen sharply. The PCE hiked by 25% to 27.62% regardless of it is practically unattainable but in reality, it will prove as a milestone in this area if and only if we are using HTL as well. The different HTL layer has been studied for the proposed device structure and elaborated well. For the benefit of mankind, it is completely low cost and useable along with quite good performance.

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Invite Proposals for the special issue
International Association of Advanced Materials, IAAM invites scholars to submit proposals via email to contact@iaamonline.org for a special issue to publish in the Advanced Materials Letters: ...

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