Volume 11, Issue 5, May 2020

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Related Coronavirus: A Patent Based View

Mayuree Sengupta; H. Purushotham

Advanced Materials Letters, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 5, Pages 1-5
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2020.051503

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Related Coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV2) or the COVID-19 virus has led to a global pandemic causing havoc all across. While researching methods to contain the virus or a cure is still a work-in-progress, a feasible way would be to delve into the patent landscape of SARS-CoV to locate pertinent innovations on the block. The similarity in viral proteins of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV2 enables the credence that patent applications and granted patents on SARS-CoV may offer beneficial insights towards understanding and finding a solution to COVID-19 disease.

Advances in Active Packaging: Perspectives in Packaging of Meat and Dairy Products

Davor Daniloski; Davor Gjorgjijoski; Anka Trajkovska Petkoska

Advanced Materials Letters, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 5, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2020.051504

In the process of controlling the quality and safety characteristics of foods the essential step has been maintained by the packaging. The food packaging can protect the food products from the surrounding environment, increase the shelf-life of the product and provide proper product’s information to the consumers. Numerous important characteristics of food can be lost as a result of the possible changes in the products throughout their storage and transportation. In order to supply longer shelf-life, safety, freshness and quality of the food products, novel packaging technologies, such as active packaging and nanotechnology have been developed in the market. Nanotechnologies and active packaging might be useful for extending the shelf life of food products by increasing the material barrier properties. Moreover, incorporation of natural antioxidants and antimicrobial agents into the food packaging materials decrease the process of oxidation, inhibits the growth of microorganisms on food (meat) surfaces and therefore increases their stability. This review informs about the principles of active packaging and their current application in the meat and dairy technology.

Review of an Emerging Solar Energy System: The Perovskite Solar Cells and Energy Storages

Zhihao Li; Kuan W. A. Chee; Zhenhai Yang; Jiapeng Su; Jiapei Zhao; Anjun J. Jin

Advanced Materials Letters, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 5, Pages 1-8
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2020.051505

It is extremely important to achieve maximal efficiency of an alternative energy system, as such; it provides the maximum power output. In order to be maximally efficient in utilizing the available energy, researchers will study several key factors that can enable the best sustainable energy in terms of utilizing alternative energies. They have studied several methods to design the best-distributed energy system which implements the alternative energies, energy storage, and the advanced materials for the alternative energy generation. In terms of the solar photovoltaic technologies, e.g., researchers have studied the perovskite solar cells. Perovskite solar cells are highly favored for their wide, tunable band gap and solution process ability. Stellar rise of the perovskite solar cells application partly attributed to factors like high energy efficiency. These factors include innovative design such as the tandem structure, tunable band gap, and encapsulation for each layer. At present, their single-junction efficiencies are comparable to those of multi-crystalline silicon, cadmium telluride and copper indium gallium selenide. Finally, researchers have studied an energy storage system at a capacity of 3MegaWattHour. This system can enable a maximum energy output that entails a system including such key factors as the alternative energy generation, energy storage, and an advantageous distributed energy system.

Preparation and Application of Nanocellulose (NC): Review

Hizkeal Tsade Kara; Sisay Tadesse Anshebo; Fedlu Kedir Sabir

Advanced Materials Letters, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 5, Pages 1-12
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2020.051506

Now a day, cellulose nonmaterial’s and its application advance extraordinary fascination in both industrial and academic research fields. This is owing to its special behaviors including advanced mechanical behaviors, amazing surface area, abundant hydroxyl groups for adjustment, and benign environmental properties. This review was focused on the study of recent preparation techniques of nanocellulose from lignocellulosic biomass and its fundamental applications in environmental and energy related areas. Mostly, the cellulose nanomaterial preparation techniques associated to ball milling are summarized. In addition to this, a perspective on its upcoming is specified. Again, this review will help the scientific community working on the effective preparation of cellulose nanomaterials from lignocellulosic biomass and its greatest conceivable applications in the upcoming day.

Characterization of the Atherosclerotic Plaque Tissue

Phani Kumari Paritala; Tejasri Yarlagadda; Jessica Benitez Mendieta; Jiaqiu Wang; YuanTong Gu; Zhiyong Li; Prasad K.D.V. Yarlagadda

Advanced Materials Letters, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 5, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2020.051507

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality globally. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory CVD associated with the accumulation of plaque activated by the complex interactions between systemic, hemodynamic and biological factors. Thus, identification of plaque vulnerability is essential for the prevention of acute events and treatment of the disease. Despite, advanced imaging technologies, patient-specific computational simulations and availability of experimental data, there are still challenges in developing accurate risk stratification techniques. Therefore, this study aims to characterize the carotid plaque components structurally (histological analysis and immunostaining), mechanically (Nanoindentation tests) and chemically (Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) micro-spectroscopy). The preliminary results showed that arterial remodelling is a dynamic interaction between mechanical forces and plaque progression. The biological content and composition of human atherosclerotic plaque tissue have been shown to significantly influence the mechanical response of samples. This data represents a step towards an enhanced understanding of the behaviour of human atherosclerotic plaque. Future large-scale experimental studies with more cross-sections along the length of the plaque could be used to develop a risk stratification technique.

Characterization and Behavior of Aluminum Foam Sandwich Fabricated by A Novel Approach Via Hot-Dip Process

Hu Zheng-Fei; Yao Chen; Mo Fan

Advanced Materials Letters, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 5, Pages 1-8
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2020.051508

Metallurgical bonding aluminum foam sandwich (AFS) was fabricated by specially designed method of solder pre-coating via hot-dip and heat-press assisted with vibration. Peeling test and three-point bending test were performed to investigate the joints strength and flexural strength of the AFS. The results show that the joints have steady mechanical properties, and the joint fabricated with ultrasonic vibration has much higher peeling moment and flexural strength than that prepared only by hot-press. Microstructure observations of the joints indicate a good metallurgical bonding between Al face sheet and foam core was achieved. The seam of AFS fabricated by hot-press assisted with ultrasonic vibration looks more compact and the bonding interface fused together firmly. The bonding faces of aluminum sheet and foam core are obviously corroded by melt ZnAl alloy and an obvious interdiffusion took placed during hot-dip process and hot-press, so the chemical compositions in the diffusion transitional zone are continuous.  However the seam of the AFS fabricated only by hot-press has visible macro-defects, and the worse is its bonding interface fused together partially, which severely degrades the bonding strength.

Predicting Tensile Behaviour of Bulk Bamboo using Weibull Statistics for Progressive Failure

Mannan Sayyad

Advanced Materials Letters, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 5, Pages 1-5
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2020.051509

Bamboo is a natural composite material consisting of unidirectional fibre bundles, oriented along axial direction, embedded in soft parenchymatous matrix. The bundles are arranged such that the fibre density (or fibre volume fraction) varies from outer to inner periphery of bamboo shoot. The gradation in volume fraction of unidirectional fibre bundles qualifies bamboo as a typical radially graded transversely isotropic material. Being largely a cellulosic material, the fibre bundles have high tensile strength. However, there is great dispersion of these properties. In this work, an attempt is made to model the progressive failure of fibre bundles to predict the failure strength of bulk bamboo in uniaxial tension. A two-parameter Weibull distribution is proposed to analyse the strengths of fibre bundles having different cross-section areas. Tension tests are performed on fibre bundles, selected from different fibre density regions in the transverse cross-section of bamboo, for determining statistical parameters. The results highlight the close resemblance between the Weibull probability distribution of the experimental results on fibre bundles and overall mechanical behaviour of the bulk bamboo. Thus, the use of Weibull parameters is established for predicting the strength of bulk bamboo from fibre bundle testing of different cross-section areas.  

Morphological Changes in Chick Embryos Development Exposed to Electromagnetic Radiation Emitted by Smart Mobile Phones

Solafa Omar Azzouz; Fatma Al-Qudsi; Sabah Linjawi; Mona G. Alharbi; Aisha Abdullah Alrofaidi; Safiah Alhazmi; Magdah Ganash; Najlaa Bint Saud Al-Saud; Sabah M. Hassan

Advanced Materials Letters, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 5, Pages 1-8
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2020.051510

In last decade, smart mobile phone devices has been public use and this has increased the concern about its potential effects on human body and embryo development. This study aimed to investigate the effect of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) emitted from smart mobile phone on chick embryo development. Fertile hen eggs were divided into three experimental groups of 30 eggs for each: control, sham and treated group. Treated group was exposed to EMR emitted by smart mobile phone during development period. The EMR was measured by a radiofrequency meter. At E7, E10 and E14 days of incubation embryos were collected at embryonic days and washed with normal saline. After that, embryos were weighted and photographed. In the present study, direct exposure (treated) and indirect exposure (sham) to EMR cause different congenital malformation phenotypes such as hemorrhagic, growth retardation, absence of neck or beak, limbs buds, brain malformation, beak malformation, decrease in feather formation, diminished pigmentation in iris and skin was not the typical pink color compared to the control. Furthermore, decreased growth parameters such as whole-body weight, whole-body length, forelimbs and hindlimbs, body mass index (BMI), eye weight and diameter were also observed. Furthermore, smart mobile phones found also to cause increased mortality rate during early and late developmental stages.

The Protective Effect of Diphenoxylate Drug on API X120 Carbon Steel Corrosion in 15% Hydrochloric Acid Environment

Lebe A. Nnanna; Nkem B. Iroha

Advanced Materials Letters, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 5, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2020.051511

The inhibiting effect of diphenoxylate drug (DD) on API X120 carbon steel corrosion in 15% HCl solution was investigated using chemical, electrochemical and surface morphological studies. The inhibition efficiency of the studied drug increases with increase in its concentrations, giving a maximum inhibition efficiency of 95.28%, at the optimum concentration of 400 ppm. The effect of temperature revealed that the inhibition efficiency of DD decreases with temperature rise. The adsorption of DD obeyed the Langmuir isotherm and indicated predominantly physical adsorption mechanism. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis affirmed the adsorption of the inhibitor on the X120 steel surface.  Potentiodynamic polarization (PDP) study indicated that the tested drug acted as mixed type inhibitor with little anodic dominance. The result of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy supported the formation of adsorbed inhibitor film on the X120 steel surface.