Document Type : Research Article



In last decade, smart mobile phone devices has been public use and this has increased the concern about its potential effects on human body and embryo development. This study aimed to investigate the effect of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) emitted from smart mobile phone on chick embryo development. Fertile hen eggs were divided into three experimental groups of 30 eggs for each: control, sham and treated group. Treated group was exposed to EMR emitted by smart mobile phone during development period. The EMR was measured by a radiofrequency meter. At E7, E10 and E14 days of incubation embryos were collected at embryonic days and washed with normal saline. After that, embryos were weighted and photographed. In the present study, direct exposure (treated) and indirect exposure (sham) to EMR cause different congenital malformation phenotypes such as hemorrhagic, growth retardation, absence of neck or beak, limbs buds, brain malformation, beak malformation, decrease in feather formation, diminished pigmentation in iris and skin was not the typical pink color compared to the control. Furthermore, decreased growth parameters such as whole-body weight, whole-body length, forelimbs and hindlimbs, body mass index (BMI), eye weight and diameter were also observed. Furthermore, smart mobile phones found also to cause increased mortality rate during early and late developmental stages.

Graphical Abstract

Morphological Changes in Chick Embryos Development Exposed to Electromagnetic Radiation Emitted by Smart Mobile Phones