Volume 6, Issue 1, January 2015

Advanced Materials World Congress (AMWC) -2015, Sweden

Ashutosh Tiwari

Advanced Materials Letters, 2015, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 1-1
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2014.10001

VBRI Press AB is pleased to sponsor ‘Advanced Materials World Congress’ (AMWC) during 23-26 August, 2015, http://vbripress.com/amwc/ in Stockholm, Sweden. It is a four-day international event organised by the International Association of Advanced Materials (www.iaamonline.org), which regularly meet every two-year since 2010. This upcoming world congress is going to host in the city of Nobel Prize, Stockholm, Sweden. The venue of congress will be held on the Baltic Sea from Stockholm (Sweden) – Tallinn (Estonia) - Stockholm (Sweden) via Mariehamn and Helsinki, Finland by the Viking Line. The goal of congress is to provide a global platform for researchers and engineers coming from academia and industry to present their research results and activities in the field of fundamental and interdisciplinary research of materials science. The World Congress will provide opportunities for the delegates to exchange their face-to-face novel ideas and experiences with the international experts during the plenary and invited talks, oral presentations and poster sessions. We will also set up sessions with keynote forum, panel discussion and project negotiation.

Effect Of Annealing Time On The Composition, Microstructure And Band Gap Of Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide Thin Films

Om P. Singh; N. Muhunthan; Vidya N. Singh; Bhanu P. Singh

Advanced Materials Letters, 2015, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 2-7
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2015.6584

In this study, CZTS thin films were deposited by co-sputtering Cu, ZnS and SnS targets and sulfurizing it in H2S atmosphere at 550 °C. It has been observed that by varying the sulfurization time from 5 to 40 min, the secondary phases got eliminated and stoichiometric film is obtained. This leads to change in the optical band gap from 1.67 to 1.51 eV. The crystallite size calculated using the broadening in the (112) peak of the X-ray diffraction spectra also changed with the sulfurization time from 15.0 to 21.7 nm. Broadening and shift in the Raman peaks have also been observed. Changes in grain size have been observed in scanning electron microscopic studies. In short, the increased band gap reported in literatures may be due to the presence of impurities (except for particles where quantum confinement is applicable; with size less than ~ 7 nm). The above conclusion is based on careful analysis of XRD and Raman data. This study shall help in characterizing CZTS thin film properly, growing high quality CZTS thin films for the realization of high efficiency and durable CZTS based solar cell.

The Equilibrium Of Martensite Shear Stress At Phase Transistors In TiNi-based Alloy

Victor E. Gunther; Timofey L. Chekalkin; Ji-Soon Kim; Valentina N. Hodorenko

Advanced Materials Letters, 2015, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 8-12
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2015.5597

Thermoelastic martensitic transformations play a fundamental role in the shape memory effect and related phenomena. Owing to their unique crystallographic and thermomechanical behaviour, martensitic transformations have generated considerable research in the areas of crystallography, thermodynamics and mechanical behaviour. In the area of thermodynamics a theoretical approach is now added which provides the basis for thermoelastic behaviour through consideration of the Gibbs energy change. In this paper, the interrelation of internal elastic stresses and martensite shear stresses in phase transitions has been defined. A thermoelastic stress equilibrium equation for a wide range of martensitic transformation temperatures has been presented. On the basis of the calculations made, an estimation of dislocation defects formation energy for the TiNi-based alloy has been made. For TiNi-based composition made of TN-10 brand alloy, commercially produced for medical goals, the energy of vacancy formation is about 0.06 kcal/mol. The study and calculations are shown to make clear, using a new approach, the considering of phase transitions in terms of external and internal stresses.

Biosensor For Detection Of Selective Anticancer Drug Gemcitabine Based On Polyaniline-gold Nanocomposite

Keisham Radhapyari; Raju Khan

Advanced Materials Letters, 2015, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 13-18
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2015.5607

Electrochemical biosensor is an effective tool for pharmaceutical analysis due to its simplicity, specificity, sensitivity, fast, cost-effective and repetitive measurements with miniaturized and portable devices. The paper illustrates the detail methodology for development of an amperometric biosensor based on polyaniline-gold nanocomposite film modified horseradish peroxidase for anticancer drug gemcitabine in bulk and in parenteral formulation. Scanning Electron Microscopy, Cyclic Voltammetry, Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopic studies of the electrodes and after immobilizing of HRP shows the successful formation of a selectivity of the electrode. The proposed polyaniline-gold nano-composite based biosensor allow quantitation over the range 0.10 to 1.10 ngmL −1 with detection limit of 0.031 ngmL −1 , biosensor sensitivity of 2.934 µAng mL -1 has distinct advantages over other existing methods. Precision and accuracy were also checked and were within the limits. The procedure has been applied to the assay of the drug in dosage form with mean percentage recoveries of 99.00±0.08%. The suggested biosensor method can be successfully applied to the detection and determination of anticancer drug gemcitabine in different drug formulations.

Cassia Grandis Seed Gum-graft-poly(acrylamide)-silica Hybrid: An Excellent Cadmium (II) Adsorbent

Vandana Singh; Stuti Tiwari; Sadanand Pandey; Rashmi Sanghi

Advanced Materials Letters, 2015, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 19-26
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2015.5603

This study puts forward the synthesis of an excellent cadmium adsorbent having unprecedented high capacity (Qmax = 5000 mg g -1 ) to capture cadmium ions from synthetic cadmium solution. To synthesize the adsorbent (A700), base catalyzed polymerization of tetra ethylorthosilicate (TEOS) was conducted under the sacrificial templation effect of poly(acrylamide) grafted Cassia grandis seed gum (CG) while using H2O, TEOS and EtOH in 8:1:1: ratio (v/v).  The CG inspired adsorbent was characterized by FTIR, XRD and SEM, both before and after cadmium adsorption. The adsorption parameters for the synthesized adsorbent were optimized by performing the batch adsorption studies under different pH, initial cadmium concentration, adsorbent dose, and contact time. The adsorption showed pseudo second order kinetics with a rate constant of 1.55 x 10 -4 g mg -1 min -1 at 450 mg mL -1 Cd(II) concentration. The thermodynamic study showed that the adsorption is endothermic and spontaneous. The adsorbent could be successfully reused for three cycles. The present adsorbent is not only very efficient in cadmium uptake; it is greener than the contemporary porous silica adsorbents derived through templation of pure synthetic polymers or surfactants. Moreover the source polysaccharide used for its synthesis is abundant and cheap. This hybrid can utilized as versatile and sustainable adsorbent for cadmium recovery from industrial wastes.

Phase Transitions Of The Ferroelectric Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 By Dielectric And Internal Friction Measurements

Venkata Ramana Mudinepalli; N. Ramamanohar Reddy; Wen-Chin Lin; K.V. Siva Kumar; B.S. Murty

Advanced Materials Letters, 2015, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 27-32
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2015.5620

This work focuses on the high temperature dielectric and mechanical spectroscopic properties of lead free relaxor Sodium Bismuth Titanate (NBT) ceramics, fabricated by conventional ceramic double sintering method. Systematic measurements of dielectric and mechanical properties have been performed as a function of temperature. A sequence of phase transitions has been studied by both dielectric and anelastic measurements. Three internal friction peaks were observed near 350, 200 and 120 °C. The 350 °C-peak corresponds to a transition associated with the tetragonal (P < /em>4bm) to rhombohedral (R3c) phase, and the 200 °C-peak is related to the ferroelectric to antiferroelectric phase transition. The 120 °C-peak could be ascribed to the interaction between the domain walls and the diffusion of oxygen vacancies in the domains.

Anti-emetic Drug Delivery For Cancer Patients Through Electrospun Composite Nanofibers Transdermal Patch: In Vitro Study

Damanpreet Kaur; Nahar Singh;Sanjay R. Dhakate; Ashish Gupta

Advanced Materials Letters, 2015, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 33-39
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2015.5594

The objective of the present investigation is to deliver antiemetic GH (Granisetron hydrochloride) drug to cancer patient through nanofibers transdermal patch to overcome the problem of chemotherapy induced post-operative side effects like nausea and vomiting. The biodegradable poly vinylalcohol (PVA) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) electrospun composite nanofiber based transdermal patch was developed and anti-emetic drug was loaded by active loading in it. The in-vitro drug release from nanofibers patch demonstrates that there is a controlled release pattern of the drug and release rate is varying with PVP content in the composite nanofiber patch. Also from the data of cumulative drug permeation and steady state flux demonstrates that rate of drug release through membrane and permeation across skin increases with increasing concentration of PVP. The drug release follows Higuchi model of kinetics. While marketed drug tablet follows the zero order kinetic model of drug release. The regression values obtained for both the formulations lie in the range of 0.9484 – 0.951 which suggests the mechanism of drug release is due to the diffusion of embedded drug molecule and erosion of polymer from nanofiber an aqueous medium. Thus the present investigation gives impetus to work in the direction of delivering anti-emetic drug through nanofibers transdermal patch.

On The Molecular Basis Of Silica Gel Morphology

Agnieszka Kierys; Jacek Goworek; Michal Rawski; Istvan Halasz

Advanced Materials Letters, 2015, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 40-46
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2015.amwc1194

Distinction between molecular constitutions of differently made silica gels succeeded only recently.  This paper seeks relationship between the different molecular structures of acid and base set gels and their morphology and pore structure.  Gels were fabricated from both tetraethyl orthosilicate, TEOS, in organic solvent environment and from an economically more desirable, commercial, aqueous Na-silicate solution.  When their gelling was performed in the pores of an organic resin, Amberlite, further molecular differences were observed, along with associated morphology and porosity differences.  We present here unprecedented atomically resolved TEM pictures that visually prove that the molecular structures of gels deduced from their 29 Si NMR and Raman spectra are real, which could also be demonstrated by computer models.

Optical Behaviour Of CdS Nanorods Dispersed In Liquid Crystal

J.S. Roy; T. Pal Majumder; R. Dabrowski; B.K. Mahato; A. Barman

Advanced Materials Letters, 2015, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 47-50
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2015.5599

The optical properties of CdS nanorods have been modified in presence of antiferroelectric liquid crystals (AFLC). The effective refractive index of the CdS nanorods has been increased from 2.468 to 2.499 due to presence of AFLC molecules. The change in optical band gap of the CdS nanorods dispersed in AFLC causes the increment of refractive index of the CdS nanorods. The optical band gap of the CdS nanorods has been shifted from 2.61 eV to 2.52 eV due to presence of AFLC. We have also observed the enhanced photoluminescence (PL) intensity and red shift in emissive energy band of CdS nanorods dispersed in AFLC.

Biosynthesis Of Colloidal Copper Hydroxide Nanowires Using Pistachio Leaf Extract

Akl M. Awwad; Borhan Albiss

Advanced Materials Letters, 2015, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 51-54
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2015.5630

Copper hydroxide nanowires were synthesized from copper chloride dihydrate and sodium hydroxide in the  presence of Pistachio leaf extract  at room temperature. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM)  exhibited  that the copper hydroxide  Cu(OH)2  are nanowires  in shape and having  an average diameter of ca. 10 nm and lengths of up to 500 nm . The Fourier transfor infrared  spectroscopy (FT-IR)  results examined the bioactive functional groups , which acts as dispersing, binding and capping agent for the copper hydroxide nanowires. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra confirmed the copper hydroxide nanoparticles crystalline in nature. The current research introduces a new, simple, and rapid route for the in –laboratory synthesis of copper hydroxide nanowires. This facile and green approach may provide a useful tool to large scale synthesis other copper nanoparticles that have potential biotechnology.

Green Synthesis Of Gold Nanoparticles From The Leaf Extract Of Nepenthes Khasiana And Antimicrobial Assay

B.S. Bhau; Sneha Ghosh; Sangeeta Puri; B. Borah; D.K. Sarmah; Raju Khan

Advanced Materials Letters, 2015, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 55-58
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2015.5609

Synthesis of nanoparticles from various biological systems has been reported, but among all, biosynthesis of nanoparticles from plants is considered as the most suitable method. The use of plant material not only makes the process eco-friendly but also the abundance makes it more economical. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of this plant to synthesis gold nanoparticles and study the properties of the nanoparticles thus produced. Antimicrobial activity and medicinal values of Nepenthes khasiana fascinated us to utilize it for biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles. The synthesized gold nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometry, Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Diffraction, Fourier Transform Infra-red Spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy. Different time intervals for the reaction with aqueous chloroauric acid solution increase in the absorbance with time and became constant giving a maximum absorbance at 599.78 nm at three hours of incubation. The results from XRD, TEM and SEM supports the biosynthesis of triangular and spherical shaped Gold nanoparticles between 50nm to 80 nm. In this study, the antimicrobial property of the AuNPS was exploited against human pathogenic micro-organisms. The results of TEM, SEM, FT-IR, UV-VIS and XRD confirm that the leaves extract of N. Khasiana can be used to produce Gold nanoparticles with significant amount of antimicrobial activity.​

Synthesis And Characterization Of Graphite Doped Chitosan Composite For Batch Adsorption Of Lead (II) Ions From Aqueous Solution

Asha H. Gedam; Rajendra S. Dongre; Amit K. Bansiwal

Advanced Materials Letters, 2015, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 59-67
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2015.7592

The adsorption of poisonous lead (II) from aqueous solution using graphite doped chitosan composite as an adsorbent has been carried out. The characterizations of graphite doped chitosan composite were studied by using instrumental techniques like X-ray diffraction, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The XRD study showed the crystalline nature of synthesized graphite doped chitosan composite with sharp and symmetric peaks. SEM morphology showed wide range of porosity that could achieve high lead (II) sorption. FTIR investigation evidenced that the presence of C=O and –OH functionalities participated in lead (II) adsorption from aqueous solution. The influence of pH, contact time, dose of adsorbent and initial metal ion concentration on removal of lead (II) was investigated. The adsorption efficiency was found to be pH dependent and the maximum 98% lead (II) removal observed at optimum pH 6.  Results showed that the maximum adsorbent capacity was at dosage of 1g/L and equilibrium time achieved at 120 min. Equilibrium adsorption experiments were studied at room temperature and data obtained fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm. Langmuir model had higher R 2 values of 0.943 with sorption capacity of 6.711 mg of adsorbate/g of adsorbent which fitted the equilibrium adsorption process more than the Freundlich model. The adsorption kinetics was analyzed using pseudo first order, pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion models. Experimental data better fitted with pseudo second order kinetics model. The results illustrated that graphite doped chitosan composite has the potential to remove lead (II) ions from aqueous solution.

Electrical And Polarization Behaviour Of Titania Nanoparticles Doped Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal

Swadesh Kumar Gupta; Dharmendra Pratap Singh; Rajiv Manohar*

Advanced Materials Letters, 2015, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 68-72
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2015.5614

The present study focuses on the effect of anatase TiO2 (titania) nanoparticles (NPs) on conductivity and polarization in a ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC). Different dielectric and electro-optical measurements have been conducted to explore the charge transportation and polarization mechanism in titania NPs doped FLC system. Doping of titania NPs show reduced dc conductivity of doped LC system attributed to the trapping of free charges by titania NPs at its surface. Polarization has been found to increase at low fields indicating reduction of field screening effect in doped FLC system. Optical response of the doped FLC system has been improved due to decreased intervention of ionic charges particularly at small electric fields. The present study will be helpful in minimizing the slow response problems and the grey level shift in liquid crystal devices which arise due to ionic effects.

 Growth And Properties Of Pulsed Laser Deposited Al-doped ZnO Thin Film

Gurpreet Kaur; Anirban Mitra; K.L. Yadav

Advanced Materials Letters, 2015, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 73-79
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2015.5606

Al-doping of 1.5% by weight, in ZnO (Al:ZnO), thin films are deposited on glass substrates at temperature 400 °C and varying oxygen gas pressure (PO2) from 1.33 Pa to 5.32 Pa via Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) technique. The single crystalline nature of the thin films is confirmed from the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern. The evaluated crystallite size is found to be <15 nm. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) study reveals the columnar grain formation in the thin films, with low surface roughness. The surface morphology of the grown thin films is significantly affected by PO2. Optical measurements depict that the thin films are highly transparent in the visible region with transmittance up to 80%. The optical band gap calculated from Tauc’s plot evinced that Al-doping results in band edge bending in Al:ZnO thin films, a red shift in the band gap is observed with increase in PO2 that is due to the contributing electrons from oxygen ions. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of films indicate the visible emission peaks originating from defect states. Optical properties of the thin films confirm their applicability for optoelectronic devices. The room temperature, current-voltage (I-V) plots indicate low resistivity in the thin films ~ 10 -2 (Ω-cm).

Energy Absorption Capabilities Of Aluminium Foam-filled Square

Dipen Kumar Rajak; L.A. Kumaraswamidhas; S. Das

Advanced Materials Letters, 2015, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 80-85
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2015.5605

In this study compression behavior and energy absorption capacity of aluminium foam-filled square tubes under the divers strain rate in between 0.01 to 1/s at room temperature were studied. The foam-filled thin-wall square tube were made up of aluminium tube, aluminium tube as its shell and closed–cell LM 30 + 15% SiCp Al-alloy foam as its core. The result shows that the plateau region of the stress-strain graph exhibited marked fluctuant serration which is clearly related formation of the folds. The axial deformation mode of foam-filled square tube were the same as the empty sample tube, but the fold number of foam-filled sample tube were more than that of empty sample tubes. The axial compression load and specific energy absorption rate of foam-filled sample tubes were higher compared to the sum of the empty sample tubes and aluminium foam due to the contact between tube & foam-filled. When compare with empty aluminium tube samples to foam filled samples, energy absorption increases considerably. This work indicates the excellent ability of Al-alloy foam in application in which it is necessary to absorb compressed energy.