Volume 10, Issue 11, November 2019

Current Global Scenario of Electric Vehicles

Ashutosh Tiwari

Advanced Materials Letters, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 11, Pages 752-752
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2019.1011

The biggest challenge that the world stands across in the 21 st century is environmental degradation. Terms like ‘climate change’ and ‘energy crisis’ have never been more familiar. One of the main reasons behind this are the conventional vehicles that work only on an internal combustion engine by consuming fossil fuels and emit harmful gases like nitrogen oxides, carbon oxides, and the hydrocarbons. With every passing day, the environmental issues are becoming more and more serious. Especially in the densely populated areas, the gas emissions from the conventional vehicles have become the main source of air pollution. These gas emissions are also the main contributor to the outdoor air pollution that eventually leads to as many as 6.5 million deaths around the world every year. In fact, the transportation sector is also the main contributor to GHG emissions that cause Global Warming. According to the International Energy Agency, the transportation sector contributes as much as 25% of the total CO2 emissions annually.

Review on Detection of Phenol in Water 

Tanvir Arfin; Kamini Sonawane ;Arshiya Tarannum

Advanced Materials Letters, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 11, Pages 753-785
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2019.0036

Phenol gives a toxic response in the natural water and leads to show harsh effects on human being, plants, and animals. At low concentration, the phenol gives a pungent taste as well as odour to the consumption of water. It is because of such reason that phenol is contained in the environmental legislation, and it needs to be analysed for providing better results. Therefore it should be eliminated before discharging or reusing the waste flow to the environment. The current review is mainly focused on the growth related to the detection of phenol in the water. In the review the state, advantages, disadvantages of different techniques are discussed in brief. The methods mainly involve the electrodes which hold the interest for using new material in the form of binders and also to advance the other types of electrodes. It is observed that for the electrochemist, the electrochemistry of electrodes is considered as the most commanding approach. The significant merits of using electrodes are an enhancement of the selectivity for the electroanalytical approach. The preparation methods for the electrodes are simple, secure, versatile, and most commonly, it has many controllable variables which enables it best material used in the starting of various applications. There are different aspects of applications such as industrial technology transfers purposes; it affects the electroanalytical chemistry and diverse other fields as well, namely energy conversion, catalysis, storage, etc. Copyright © VBRI Press.

Investigating the Machinability of Metallic Matrix Composites Reinforced by Carbon Nanotubes: A Review

Robiul Islam Rubel; Md. Hasan Ali; Md. Abu Jafor; Sk. Suzauddin Yusuf

Advanced Materials Letters, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 11, Pages 786-792
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2019.0025

The modern manufacturing technology tends to innovate different materials with simultaneous low density in weight, porosity, high toughness, corrosion resistance, thermal and electrical properties etc. Metallic matrix-based carbon nanotubes composites (CNTs) are a relatively new material concept. The CNT reinforced composite materials harvest the dual benefit of alloying metals with high mechanical properties of CNTs. Besides, the materials being innovated must have good forming or machining characteristics. However, no machining data or machining model are yet available for these newly developed composites. In this work, the mechanical machining of metal-matrix/CNTs composites has studied to review the available data and better understanding the material removal behaviour. The work also concludes on the suggestive machining techniques adopted that will not affect the structural deformation, mechanical, thermal, electrical properties as well as must not alter the mechanical characteristics of the machined surface. The present study will assist in optimizing the manufacturing composites with desirable mechanical properties in future CNT reinforced composite developments. Copyright © VBRI Press.

Photocatalytic ZnO based PES Membranes for AOP Water Treatments under UV and Sunlight

Giulia Ognibene; Gianluca Cicala;Maria Elena Fragalà

Advanced Materials Letters, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 11, Pages 793-796
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2019.2093

ZnO nanorods (ZnO) are grown by Chemical Bath Deposition on microfiltration polyetheresulphone (PES) water membranes in order to combine photocatalytic properties of zinc oxide to adsorption properties of membranes. Degradation of a model dye (methylene blue, MB) dispersed in water is promoted by exposition of multifunctional ZnO/PES membranes to UV and solar light: in fact, ZnO decorated membrane ensures generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that degrade the organic pollutants dispersed in water. ZnO degradation promoted by UV irradiation is detectable by anionic meso-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl) porphyrin (H2TPPS 4- ) that is used as effective molecular probe to sense the presence of Zn 2+ ions due to photocatalytic leaching. Copyright © VBRI Press.

Plasma Activated Water as a Source of Nitrogen for Algae Growth

Seema Sukhani; N. Punith; R. Lakshminarayana; H.N. Chanakya

Advanced Materials Letters, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 11, Pages 797-801
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2019.0043

Use of algal biomass as a source of renewable energy and food is gaining more interests. Algal biomass finds its application in a wide range of sectors such as renewable biofuel generation, protein substitution in food industry, in cosmetics and in pharma industry. For growing algae, resources such as water, light and other nutrients including nitrogen are necessary. Nitrogen is the major resources needed for algae growth. Conventionally, this source of nitrogen used to support algal growth is from chemical fertilizers which are derived from fossil fuels. This work reports a preliminary study to quantify the algae growth parameters using Plasma activated water, which is an alternative source of nitrogen. In this study mixed algae culture and Bold’s Basal Medium was used for algae growth using 10 klx light source over a period of 6 days. Sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite and a mixture of both were used as comparative controls. Biomass yield and chlorophyll content were used as comparing parameters in this work. The chlorophyll yield of the microalgae grown in PAW was comparable to that of sodium nitrite solution indicating that PAW can be used to grow algae without using fossil fuel derived fertilizers. Biomass yield of PAW, Nitrate, Nitrite and combination were 311±58 mg/l, 227±25 mg/l, 434±94 mg/l and 362±138 mg/l respectively. These experiments provide a proof of concept evidence to support the claim that PAW can be used as a good source of nitrogen for algae growth. Copyright © VBRI Press.

Digital Light Processing (DLP) 3D Printing of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Biopolymer, Commercially available Ultra-High and Tough (UHT) Resin and Maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) Nanoparticles Mixture for Tissue Engineering Scaffold Application

Nor Hasrul Akhmal Ngadiman; Muhammad Aniq Barid Basri; Noordin Mohd Yusof; Ani Idris; Ehsan Fallahiarezoudar

Advanced Materials Letters, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 11, Pages 802-806
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2019.0023

Digital Light Processing (DLP) 3D printing process has been used with standard, commercially available ultra-high and tough (UHT) photopolymer resin to produce for various 3D parts. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) biopolymer has been used extensively in biomedicine due to its excellent performance in biocompatibility and hydrophilicity. However, it offers low mechanical strength. The inclusion of maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles have been found to be able to increase the mechanical properties of TE scaffolds fabricated using a combination of processes. This study aims at exploring the possibility of using various mixtures which consists of different combinations UHT resin, PEG solution and γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles with the DLP 3D printer system. The effects of various quantities of mixtures were investigated in terms of their mechanical and biocompatibility properties with a view of producing TE scaffolds. The results from this study proves that the simpler, DLP 3D printer system can be used with a mixture of standard photopolymer and biopolymer resins, and nanoparticles.  The addition of PEG and γ-Fe2O3 enhanced the mechanical and biocompatibility properties of the developed structure. Copyright © VBRI Press.

Fabrication of Nanoparticle Embedded Polymeric Microbeads as an Efficient Drug Delivery System

Bhavani P. Nenavathu

Advanced Materials Letters, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 11, Pages 807-813
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2019.0003

An efficient theragnostic which offers diagnosis and therapy of cancer is developed using a polymer based nanocarrier embedded with fluorescent quantum dots by the ionotropic gelation method. The FTIR spectra provide direct evidence of formation of polymer based nanocarrier comprising chitosan-alginate micro beads (CS-ALG beads). Notably, the SEM images showed highly porous structure of polymeric beads without Ag NPs and CdS QDs. The morphology of CS-ALG beads loaded with Ag NPs and CdS QDs showed smooth surface, glossy, homogenous shape under scanning electron microscopy and it could be due to high loading of fluorescent and silver NPs. The EDX analysis of as synthesised nanoparticle embedded polymeric beads showed X-ray peaks of Cd, S corresponds to CdS NPs. And the X- Ray peaks of C, O corresponds to the polymer beads.  Characterization of nanocarrier for the presence of polymers has been confirmed by studies carried out using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed complete degradation of Chitosan at about 450 °C while calcium alginate exhibits three-step decomposition. Further, the swelling studies of dried CS-ALG beads were carried out at room temperature and about 97% of swelling is being observed at pH 5 in 45 min. and 44% swelling is observed at pH 2. Copyright © VBRI Press.

Micro/Nanostructured Papers from Bagasse Pulp Reinforced by Nanofibrillated Cellulose from different Agro-Waste Sources

Nattakan Soykeabkaew; Phattharasaya Rattanawongkun; Nutchanad Kunfong; Supattra Klayya; Nattaya Tawichai; Uraiwan Intatha

Advanced Materials Letters, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 11, Pages 814-818
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2019.0011

The nanofibrillated celluloses (NFCs) from banana pseudostem (BA) and pineapple leaf (PA) were prepared by soda pulping pretreatment and microfluidization. TEM and XRD results revealed a slight diverse in features of both NFCs. Their average diameter was 15.5-20.0 nm with ~1.7 µm average length. Each NFC (1-5 wt%) was integrated into the bagasse microfiber (BG) papers. From SEM images, it was showed that the voids between the microfibers were filled up and bridged by NFCs, hence, greatly increasing fiber bonded area and remarkably reinforcing the papers as a result. The BG/NFC-BA 5 wt% sheet exhibited to be the strongest one. Then again, the BG/NFC-PA 5 wt% sheet (highly elongated before breaking) was shown to be the toughest one. This can bring a conclusion that NFCs can effectively be used to improve quality of the microfiber papers in many aspects. In addition, it was also found that the source of NFCs showed a noticeable influence on the paper strength while the quantity of added NFCs was more critical to the paper toughness. Therefore, a selection of both suitable source and usage quantity of NFCs for desired performance of papers and other related products has to be considered beforehand. Copyright © VBRI Press

Structural, Optical and Magnetic Properties of Pristine, (Mn, Al) co-doped ZnO Nanocrystallites Synthesized via co-Precipitation Method

P. Swapna; S. Venkatramana Reddy; B. Sreenivasulu

Advanced Materials Letters, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 11, Pages 819-824
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2019.0018

Undoped and (Mn, Al) co-doped Zinc Oxide nanoparticles are synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method at room temperature effectively via poly ethylene glycol (PEG) as stabilizing agent. XRD data reveals that all the concentrations acquire hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure with no secondary peaks concerning to Al or Mn, indicating successful dissolution of Al and Mn in to ZnO host lattice. The exact particle size is estimated using TEM illustrations, which is confirmed through the XRD results. EDS spectrum shows, no impurities are present in the samples other than manganese and aluminum. The absorption spectra of all the samples reveal characteristic absorption edge in the vicinity of 375 nm.  PL spectra show that all the concentrations include defect associated peaks in the visible region. VSM measurements reveal the ferromagnetic nature for co-doped samples. Copyright © VBRI Press.

Nanosecond Laser Surface Patterning of Ti6Al4V Bio-alloy for Improved Biological Performance

Sunita Kedia; Shazia Shaikh; Ananda G. Majumdar; Mahesh Subramanian; A. K. Sahu; Sucharita Sinha

Advanced Materials Letters, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 11, Pages 825-831
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2019.0026

Biological performances such as osseointegration and biocompatibility of Ti6Al4V alloy primarily depends on topological and chemical properties of the surface of the bio-material. Here, a nanosecond pulsed Nd:YAG laser has been used to generate microstructures on Ti6Al4V surface by irradiating with 6000 number of laser shots per site. Formation of ripple structure and generation of sub-oxide phases on laser treated titanium surface supported uniform and dense growth of HAP on the sample. In contrast, discrete nucleation of HAP with comparable higher precipitation of calcium occurred on untreated Ti6Al4V sample when subjected to similar in vitro tests by exposing the sample to simulated body fluid. Initial interaction and growth of U2OS cells on untreated and laser treated Ti6Al4V substrates were quantified using MTT assay. More numbers of cell were attached to laser treated sample in comparison to untreated sample as observed in confocal microscope images. Our results suggested that surface patterning of Ti6Al4V alloy using nanosecond pulsed laser promoted bio-integration without compromising its biocompatibility. Copyright © VBRI Press.

Synthesis of Cu2O/Ag Composite Nanocubes with Promising Photoluminescence and Photodegradation Activity over Methylene Blue Dye

K.R. Basavalingaiah; S. Harishkumar; G. Nagaraju

Advanced Materials Letters, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 11, Pages 832-838
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2019.0032

Cu2O and Ag-Cu2O nanoparticles were prepared via reflux method using EDTA. From the PXRD, FTIR, UV-DRS studies the synthesized NPs were characterized. The morphologies of the prepared NPs were studied by SEM and TEM analysis. The synthesized NPs were tested for photocatalytic and photoluminescence studies. The PXRD data indicated that the synthesized nanoparticles belong to cubic phase structure and space group Pn-3m. The SEM data revealed that cube like structure were obtained. Cu2O and Ag-Cu2O Nps were taken for determine the photocatalytic activity study on methylene blue dye, the results indicated that Ag-Cu2O NPs exhibited promising photocatalytic activity. This is due to occurrence of Ag particles on the Cu2O material, which makes the catalyst more sensitive. Furthermore, a photoluminescence study reveals that Cu2O and Ag-Cu2O nano particles shown yellow light emission. Copyright © VBRI Press.

Locally available Clays of Bangladesh as a Replacement of imported Clays for Ceramic Industries 

Md. Masum Akanda; Avijit Mallik; Asif Bin Karim; Md. Mintu Ali

Advanced Materials Letters, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 11, Pages 839-843
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2019.0022

In Bangladesh, generally imported clays are used as the main ingredient in ceramicware industries. Though locally available clays can be refined and used instead of imported ones to minimize the high manufacturing cost. In this research, 3 locally available clays were investigated both mechanically and spectrally. The XRF analysis of local non-refined clays in contrast to imported clays has indicated the presence of excess SiO2 content (about 35%) in the form of free silica as well as TiO2 and iron oxide but the Al2O3 content are a presence in lower amount (around 8.7%). In the ceramic body, a high amount of silica content shows low plasticity which creates a crack and iron oxide could adversely affect the translucency of ceramic ware. After the refining process from those local clays, the amount of SiO2 content was reduced up to 40.2% along with 5.5% increment in Al2O3 content. From the mechanical analysis of those clays, hardness, impact and compressive strength show very good results compared with imported clays. Copyright © VBRI Press

Green Synthesis and Characterization of Silver Nanoparticles using Cassia auriculata Leaves Extract and Its Efficacy as A Potential Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Effect

S. P. Vinay; N. Chandrasekhar

Advanced Materials Letters, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 11, Pages 844-849
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2019.0046

Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were prepared using Cassia auriculata leaves extract as a reducing agent via green synthesis method. From the PXRD, UV-Visible, FTIR, studies the synthesized NPs were characterized. The morphologies of the prepared NPs were studied by SEM and TEM analysis. The synthesized NPs were tested for antibacterial and anticancer studies. The PXRD data indicated that the synthesized nanoparticles belong to cubic phase structure. Presence of strong silver peaks was confirmed by EDAX studies. The SEM and TEM data revealed that spherical like structure were obtained. Antibacterial (MIC from 75 to 150 μl) activities were noticed for green synthesized Ag NPs. Furthermore, in vitro studies revealed dose-dependent cytotoxic effects of Ag NPs treated PC-3 cell line. This is the first report on the green synthesis of Ag NPs using leaves extract of C. auriculata. Results of present study could contribute to synthesize new and cost-effective drugs from C. auriculata by using green approach. Copyright © VBRI Press.