Document Type : Research Article


1 School of Science, Mae Fah Luang University, 333 M 1, Muang, Chiang Rai, 57100, Thailand

2 Center of Innovative Materials for Sustainability (iMatS), Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai, 57100, Thailand


The nanofibrillated celluloses (NFCs) from banana pseudostem (BA) and pineapple leaf (PA) were prepared by soda pulping pretreatment and microfluidization. TEM and XRD results revealed a slight diverse in features of both NFCs. Their average diameter was 15.5-20.0 nm with ~1.7 µm average length. Each NFC (1-5 wt%) was integrated into the bagasse microfiber (BG) papers. From SEM images, it was showed that the voids between the microfibers were filled up and bridged by NFCs, hence, greatly increasing fiber bonded area and remarkably reinforcing the papers as a result. The BG/NFC-BA 5 wt% sheet exhibited to be the strongest one. Then again, the BG/NFC-PA 5 wt% sheet (highly elongated before breaking) was shown to be the toughest one. This can bring a conclusion that NFCs can effectively be used to improve quality of the microfiber papers in many aspects. In addition, it was also found that the source of NFCs showed a noticeable influence on the paper strength while the quantity of added NFCs was more critical to the paper toughness. Therefore, a selection of both suitable source and usage quantity of NFCs for desired performance of papers and other related products has to be considered beforehand. Copyright © VBRI Press

Graphical Abstract

Micro/Nanostructured Papers from Bagasse Pulp Reinforced by Nanofibrillated Cellulose from different Agro-Waste Sources