Volume 12, Issue 10, October 2021, Page 1-50

The Emerging Global Trends in Hydrogen Energy Research for Achieving the Net Zero Goals

Ashutosh Tiwari

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 10, Pages 1-5
DOI: 10.5185/aml.2021.15697

As the world is entering a phase of realization to mend ways to build a climate-neutral, healthy, and sustainable environment all around and many prominent steps are taken to achieve the goal of net-zero. The advancement of materials used for energy and production purposes is being transformed and developed in ways that will ensure sustainable development without harming of the ecology. One such strong action brought is the use of hydrogen energy towards climate neutrality. Hydrogen is now considered a very important product for aiming at zero waste as it can make it possible to remove fossil fuels usage and will play a very important role in the energy transformation of the world to sustainable development goals. It is very important to reduce the emission of carbon from industries and vehicles and at the same time give longer energy storage. As the European Deal and the United Nations move forward for attaining net-zero goals with the introduction of clean hydrogen energy and its uses have been the showstopper for various conversions in various sectors which will ensure reaching global sustainability. 

Utilization of Advanced Technologies for in-situ Remediation of Polluted Soil to avoid Ecological Risks: A Review

Aparna Pandey; Pratibha Singh; Divya Gupta; Abreeq Fatima; Sheo Mohan Prasad

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 10, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.5185/aml.2021.15698

Soil pollution cannot be directly assessed or visually perceived generally and has become a hidden danger. It is mainly contributed by contamination from chemicals, heavy metals, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and persistent organic pollutants. Soil pollutants are antagonistic to diversified life forms on earth ranging from soil microbes, plants, and mankind to water inhabitants and aerial lives, food security, agricultural productivity thereby exerting detrimental effects and so need immediate attention. The remediation of contaminated soil is necessary for sustainable development and continual existence of life forms on the planet. Ecological remediation depends chiefly on utilizing different innovations like adsorption, assimilation, compound responses, photo-catalysis, and filtration for the expulsion of contaminants from natural media like soil. This review elucidates various soil pollutants from natural to manmade sources and its affect on the environmental components. It further aims to look at recent advances in various remediation technologies for removing contaminants from soil. Besides the traditional methods of remediation, techniques involving biological methods, biotechnological approach and nanotechnology have been focused. Some possible opportunities and challenges of varying soil remediation strategies are discussed. It would suggest new perspectives and future challenges in soil remediation.

Design and Numerical Simulation using Vibration Analysis for the Detection and Reduction of Failures of the Gear Pair of the Differential System of a Powertrain

Cristhoper E. Jaimes Martínez; J. Flores Méndez; Gustavo M. Minquiz; Pablo Gutiérrez Cruz; Fernando Medina Pérez; A. C. Piñón Reyes; Janette Castro Hernández; René Pérez Pérez

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 10, Pages 1-5
DOI: 10.5185/aml.2021.15699

In this work, a numerical methodology is implemented applying the computational finite element method for a pair pinion-crown of bevel gears in spiral of the differential system of a compact Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV), with the objective of establishing a criterion of the results to characterize the failure of the gear pair during its operation. To do this, from a CAD model obtained by 3D scanning, the numerical results of the structural case are compared by correlating the transient, fatigue, modal and harmonic studies between a pair of gears without damage and another pair with a damaged (chipped) tooth on the pinion. It is observed that from the harmonic response of stress and vibration, a criterion can be established to differentiate the new pair of gears from the damaged pair, the latter presenting a frequency response pattern with high values with respect to the first. The above may be a reference option for detecting the failure of spiral bevel gear pairs used in automobile differential system.

Theoretical Prediction for Band Gap of Semiconducting Nanoparticles

Sachin .; Brijesh Kumar Pandey; Ratan Lal Jaiswal

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 10, Pages 1-4
DOI: 10.5185/aml.2021.15700

In the present study, a well-established relation between the band gap of low dimensional solid and its cohesive energy has been used to calculate the band gap variation at nano level. The different thermodynamical models proposed for the cohesive energy do not consider the unsaturated bonds of surface atoms, the shape of the nanoparticle and the packing density of the corresponding crystal simultaneously. Extending the bond energy model, a simple theoretical model for the cohesive energy has been proposed which incorporate all the above-mentioned properties simultaneously and hence getting a more comprehensive relation between the band gap and the characteristics of the nanoparticle. We have computed bandgap of compound semiconducting nanosolids ZnE and CdE, (E=S, Se, Te) in different shapes. It is found that band gap expands as the particle size decreases and the shape deviates more from spherical one. A close agreement between our calculated results and the available experimental data validates the present theoretical model. The present expression of Band gap of Nanosolids is potentially applicable for those materials whose experimental data are not available.

Synthesis, Characterization and Application of MCM-41@LDH as a New Support for Lysozyme: Central Composite Design to Evaluate Experimental Variables

Forough Karami; Ardeshir Shokrollahi; Razie Razavizade

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 10, Pages 1-8
DOI: 10.5185/aml.2021.15701

A precipitation method was used to synthesize MCM-41. Then, the obtained mesoporous was modified using layered double hydroxide (MCM-41@LDH). The novel mesoporous MCM-41@LDH was successfully applied for adsorption of lysozyme (LYS) at different conditions such as adsorbent amount, pH of solution, stirrer time, and concentration of protein which were designed using central composite design (CCD). Furthermore, the chief characteristics of new adsorbent were identified using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) analyses. The maximum adsorption of LYS, predicted by CCD was 0.025 g of support, LYS concentration of 300 mg L-1, pH 7.50, and stirrer time of 55 min. The isotherm, kinetic, and thermodynamic equations of LYS on MCM-41@LDH were surveyed. It was established that Freundlich isotherm (R2=0.997) and second-order kinetic (R2=0.997) were the best data. Gibbs free energy (ΔG°), enthalpy (ΔH°), and entropy (ΔS°) values were obtained as -17334.5 kJ/mol K (at 298.15 K), -17346.3, and -0.04 kJ/mol, respectively. Based on the achieved results including high adsorption intensity of support (Freundlich constant, n=2.46) and the negative value of ΔG˚ (spontaneity of the adsorption process), it suggests that MCM-41@LDH should be a favorable candidate for LYS-chromatography and separation applications.

Silver Nanoparticles as Nanofungicide and Plant Growth Promoter: Evidences from Morphological and Chlorophyll ‘a’ Fluorescence Analysis

Manisha Bawskar; Sunita Bansod; Dnyaneshwar Rathod; Carolina Alves dos Santos; Pramod Ingle; Mahendra Rai; Aniket Gade

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 10, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.5185/aml.2021.15702

Fungal infections are major issue in agricultural crop plants that affects the growth of plant causing huge economic losses. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have shown antimicrobial effects. Here, we report the potential application of phytostabilized AgNPs as a novel nanofungicide and growth promoter in Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek (Mung). The aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) challenged with AgNO3 (1mM) develops a brown colour, indicating AgNPs synthesis. Detection of AgNPs was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy, which showed peak at 415 nm. Further confirmation was done by Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy which illustrates functional groups present in the capping proteins. Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis, and Transmission Electron Microscopy confirmed the synthesis of spherical, polydispersed nanoparticles in the range of 15-35 nm. AgNPs proved to exhibit antifungal potential in suppression of fungal plant pathogens. Seed germination percentage was much higher for the AgNPs treated seeds as compared to control. Handy-PEA analyzer (measures chl-a fluorescence) indicating seedlings inoculated with AgNPs were grown as the healthy plant with greater vitality, compared to control plants. Phytostabilized AgNPs were found to be biocompatible and have a promising attribute in developing a potent nanofungicide to enhance productivity rate and prevent fungal infections in crops with no potential toxicity.

Novel Poly(pyrrole-co-3-acetyl pyrrole)-WO3 nanocomposites modified gold electrode as electrocatalytic oxidation and reduction of H2O2

Nitin Dighore; Priya Dahare; Suresh Gaikwad; Anjali Rajbhoj

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 10, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.5185/aml.2021.15703

The fabrication of an electrochemical sensor based on novel poly(pyrrole-co-3acetyl pyrrole)-WO3 nanocomposites modified gold electrode (PPAP-WO3-AuE) and its electrocatalytic oxidation and reduction of hydrogen peroxide is described here. The PPAP-WO3 nanocomposites were synthesized by chemical method and characterized by different techniques. The WO3 nanoparticles incorporated with PPAP were confirmed by x-ray diffraction pattern, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope micrograph. The electrochemical behaviour of PPAP-WO3-AuE towards the electro catalytic oxidation and reduction of hydrogen peroxide was investigated by cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry and square wave voltammetry. The observed DPVs and SWVs response depend linearly on concentration of hydrogen peroxide in the range of 1-10 mM and with limit of detection (LOD) is 1×10-4 M. The correlation coefficients were found as 0.991, 0.930 and sensitivity observed was 47.64 mA/mM.cm2 and 8.31mA/mM.cm2. These results indicate the PPAP-WO3-AuE exhibited good platform and could be used for electrochemical determination of hydrogen peroxide.

Morphological Characterization of Porous Anodic Alumina Membranes Prepared in Sulphuric, Oxalic, Chromic and Phosphoric Acids

P. Ramana Reddy; Ajith K.M; N.K. Udayashankar

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 10, Pages 1-5
DOI: 10.5185/aml.2021.15704

Porous Anodic Alumina membranes (PAAM) have a significant role in nanoscale devices due to their easily tunable structural aspects and variety of applications in nanotechnology. The variable process parameters in the synthesis of PAAM were anodization potential, temperature, duration and nature of electrolyte concentration. Pores of different sizes and geometry were obtained by varying these anodization parameters. In the present work, PAAM were prepared in 0.3 M of sulphuric, oxalic, chromic and phosphoric acids as electrolyte and with anodization potentials (20, 40, 50 and 90 V) at a temperature of 8 °C. Field-emission Scanning Electron Microscopy investigations confirm the pore formation in PAAM layers. Pore ordering was calculated using the Fast Fourier transform (FFT) of top view SEM micrographs. Pore arrangement analysis of PAAM was studied using Image-J and WSxM software. Morphological features of PAAM such as pore diameter, interpore distance, porosity and pore density were calculated in all electrolytes. Results show that, PAAM formed in oxalic acid having high regularity ratio and circularity compared with other cases.