Keywords : Nanotechnology

Nanotoxicological Assessments to Warranty the use of Functionalized Y2O3 Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications

D. Chávez-García; K. Juarez-Moreno; R. Reyes; J. Barrera; G. A. Hirata

Advanced Materials Letters, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 12, Pages 1-9
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2020.121583

This study is a summary of our results on synthesis, functionalization and biomedical application of luminescent lanthanide doped nanoparticles with Y2O3 as host lattice. The nanoparticles (NPs) studied were Y2O3 and Y2O3: Eu 3+ and they are water-monodispersed, synthesized by the sol-gel method and surface modified to be biocompatible with a silica shell. The NPs were conjugated with amine groups and folic acid to detect specific cancer cells. We carried out a complete nanotoxicological evaluation of NPs in HeLa and MCF-7 cancer cells and fibroblast (L929) cell line. Our results corroborate the bio- and hemo-compatibility of NPs. No in vitro inflammatory response mediated by macrophages was elicited and no genotoxic effect was scored by comet assay. Internalization of folic acid-functionalized NPs was detected by flow cytometry comparing the internal cellular complexity and the cytoplasmic localization of NPs was confirmed by confocal microscopy. We provide with more evidences to warranty the biosafety of down conversion nanoparticles based on Y2O3: Eu 3+ and functionalized with folic acid for further biomedical and bio-imaging applications.

Contribution of Nanotechnology in Animal and Human Health Care

Nadezhda Milanova Sertova

Advanced Materials Letters, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 9, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2020.091552

Nanotechnology is the ability to manipulate individual atoms and molecules in a way to create nano-structured materials and objects from 1 to 100 nanometers. Because of the size new changes in their chemical and physical structure may occur, which could indicate higher reactivity and solubility. Nanotechnology as a new empower technology, has opened up new horizons for applications in many fields including human and veterinary medicine. Examples of potential applications of nanotechnology in the science and engineering include disease treatment, delivery systems, new materials for pathogen detection, etc. The variety of nanomaterials that are used for disease diagnosis, treatment, drug delivery, animal nutrition, animal breeding, reproduction and value addition to animal products; these are metallic nanoparticles, quantum dots, carbon nanotubes, magnetic nanoparticles, nanoporous membranes. For a long time, nanoparticles have been used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents in human and veterinary medicine, although their use in animal production is still relatively new. Areas of particular interest for animal and human health include disease diagnosis, target drug delivery systems, vaccine transfer, and nutrition. Research in the field of nanotechnology will contribute to improving animal and human health and will help to increase livestock production.

Advances in Active Packaging: Perspectives in Packaging of Meat and Dairy Products

Davor Daniloski; Davor Gjorgjijoski; Anka Trajkovska Petkoska

Advanced Materials Letters, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 5, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2020.051504

In the process of controlling the quality and safety characteristics of foods the essential step has been maintained by the packaging. The food packaging can protect the food products from the surrounding environment, increase the shelf-life of the product and provide proper product’s information to the consumers. Numerous important characteristics of food can be lost as a result of the possible changes in the products throughout their storage and transportation. In order to supply longer shelf-life, safety, freshness and quality of the food products, novel packaging technologies, such as active packaging and nanotechnology have been developed in the market. Nanotechnologies and active packaging might be useful for extending the shelf life of food products by increasing the material barrier properties. Moreover, incorporation of natural antioxidants and antimicrobial agents into the food packaging materials decrease the process of oxidation, inhibits the growth of microorganisms on food (meat) surfaces and therefore increases their stability. This review informs about the principles of active packaging and their current application in the meat and dairy technology.

Nano-Graphene and Its Derivatives for Fabrication of Flexible Electronic Devices: A Quick Review

Wee Siang Koh; Kiat Moon Lee; Pey Yi Toh; Swee Pin Yeap

Advanced Materials Letters, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 10, Pages 676-681
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2019.0050

Along with technology development, the demand for flexible, foldable, and portable electronic devices has grew over the past few years. Successful fabrication of this flexible electronic devices relying on the internal electronic components which are also flexible and lightweight. In this regard, researchers are now working on using nanomaterials which exhibit the desired electronic properties to replace the conventional electronic components. Graphene nanosheet and its derivatives are known for their intrinsic electrical behaviour. Meanwhile, they are lightweight and consume small space in any design. Hence, recent research has been focussing on fabricating flexible and foldable electronic components by attaching the graphene and its derivatives on a thin film/substrate. In fact, this idea has been realized in year 2017 on the first flexible OLED panel that uses transparent graphene-based electrode. In view of the positive impact of this nanomaterial towards future design of electronic devices, the present paper aims to provide a quick review on the current stage of research, the challenges encountered, as well as the future outlook in the use of graphene nanomaterials for designing flexible electronics. Copyright © VBRI Press.

Healthcare informatics driven nanotechnology

Ashutosh Tiwari

Advanced Materials Letters, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 9, Pages 610-610
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2019.1009

Nanoinformatics has potential to accelerate advancement goals of nanomedicine for mass healthcare. Recent introduction of transformative adoption of information science and technology, machine learning and artificial intelligence for techno-community-wide best practices lead focused nanoinformatics. The new approaches to discovery and innovation for broader understanding of the medical science gaps via generating multi-scale simulations has articulated the key concepts behind complex problems related to cross-cutting issues of biomedical systems.

Nanoengineered plasma polymer films for biomedical applications

Krasimir Vasilev; Melanie Ramiasa-MacGregor

Advanced Materials Letters, 2018, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 42-52
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2018.1691

This forward looking concise review describes recent advances in the field of nanoengineered plasma polymer films. These types of coatings are relevant in many fields of application and have gained substantial research and technological interest over the last decade. The review starts with an introduction of plasma polymerization as a technique for preparation for nanometer thin polymer-like coatings. This is followed by the examples of the use of nanoengineered plasma polymer coatings in applications relevant to biomedical devices. Applications in antibacterial coatings and drug delivery vehicles are discussed. Significant section of this paper is dedicated to cell guidance surfaces which have an extensive range of applications ranging from coatings for medical devices to research tools that can help unraveling complex biological questions and vehicles for the growing field of cell therapies. The vision of the authors about the future directions of the field have also been presented, including a section on novel oxazoline based coatings that carry great promise for advances in the biomaterial and biomedical fields.

An Era Of High-tech Materials

Ashutosh Tiwari

Advanced Materials Letters, 2016, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1-2
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2016.1001

The design of innovative materials is one of measure for driving industry to place the sustainable basis of new technology in order to enhance the wealth and well-being of society. The last half century has realized a vital development in the area of high-tech materials ranging from various elements and composites, emerged through synthetic chemistry and often drawing motivation from the nature. The idea of an intelligent material imagines added values in terms of functionality built into the materials structure desirable to response the defined conditions. The previous two decades has emerged to understand the extraordinary behavior and properties of engineered nanostructured materials.

Nanoscale Device for Veterinay Technology: Trends And Future Prospective

Neeraj Dilbaghi; Harmanmeet Kaur; Ritesh Kumar; Pooja Arora; Sandeep Kumar

Advanced Materials Letters, 2013, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 175-184
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2012.7399

Nanotechnology is an interdisciplinary science comprising of various disciplines such as physics, chemistry, electronics, material science, health science, biology and veterinary science. The ability to manufacture and manipulate material at nanoscale has offered opportunities to interface biological systems with outer world in new ways and with unprecedented precision. Veterinary science deals with all non human animals including wildlife and domesticated animals, livestock, working animals and companion animals. Nanotechnology has contributed in revolutionizing health and veterinary sciences by providing new tools and new materials for molecular and cellular biology that are beneficial for living organisms. The variety of nanomaterials that are used for diagnosis and treatment include metallic nanoparticle, quantum dots, carbon nanotubes, magnetic nanoparticles, fullerenes, liposomes, dendrimers and engineered hybrid nanoparticles. However, at present, little data is available on the ecotoxicological and toxicological effects associated with these nanomaterials and hence there is a need to address these issues as physiological properties of nanomaterials are expected to influence their biological response. It is believed that in the upcoming years, nanotechnology will reform the science and technology of the animal health and will help to boost up the livestock production. Nanotechnology based techniques like bioanalytical nanosensors, nanofluidics, targeted drug delivery etc has the potential to solve problems related to diagnosis and treatment of diseases. In this review, we emphasize on how nanotechnology is swiftly changing the diagnosis and treatment patterns at faster and low cost in less time duration. There can be numerous applications of nanotechnology in disease diagnosis, treatment, drug delivery, animal nutrition, animal breeding, tissue engineering and animal identity verification. The role of nanotechnology in veterinary sciences is chiefly discussed as how nanomaterials can modernize the present life.

Intelligent Nanomaterials For Prospective Nanotechnology

Ashutosh Tiwari

Advanced Materials Letters, 2012, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 1-1
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2012.13001

Nanomaterials play very prominent role in physical, chemical and biomedical engineering applications due their high surface energies. Also the electronic configuration of atoms within the materials is very important since this principally detrmines the type of bonding and thus electrical, optical, luminescent, mechanical and magnetic properties. At nanoscale dimensions, materials exhibit entirely different properties as compared to thieir bulk counterpart. Noble metallic nanoparticles/nanostructures exhibit interesting feature of localised surface plasmon resonant; absorption can be tuned from ultraviolet region to infrared region of electromagnetic spectrum and this field has been developed to deliver potential applications in photonics, optoelectronics, optical-data storage, solar cells, filters, sensors not to mention the considerable scope in medical engineering, such as DNA labeling, tumor and cancer therapy etc.

Frontiers In Bio-nanocomposites

Ashutosh Tiwari

Advanced Materials Letters, 2011, Volume 2, Issue 6, Pages 377-377
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2011.12001

In today’s world, bio- nanocomposites are becoming increasingly prevalent owing to the extraordinary properties that they possess. Scientists learn to select suitable matrix (e.g. aliphatic polyesters, polypeptides and proteins, polysaccharides, and polynucleic acids) and fillers (e.g. nanotubes, nanofibers, clay nanoparticles, hydroxyapetite and metal nanoparticles) and alter their chemistry and structure to suit the target field. A critical challenge in the design and development of bio- nanocomposites is the adhesion of filler and matrix at their nanointerface. Also, bio- nanocomposites in addition to providing enhanced properties such as mechanical and thermal are biocompatible and/or biodegradable. This makes them one of the most versatile materials available today and thus can be prominently applied to biomedical technologies such as bone restructuring/repair, tissue engineering, dental applications, and controlled drug delivery.

Nanomedicine - bridging the gap between nanotechnology and medicine

Yi Ge; Ashutosh Tiwari;Songjun Li

Advanced Materials Letters, 2011, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 1-2
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2011.3001

The application of science and technology at the nano-scale is redefining fields like imaging, diagnosis, drug delivery, regenerative medicine and biomaterials as well as underpinning the development of new generations of medical products. Many of these advances would offer vastly improved outcomes for patients, therapies for hitherto difficult-to-treat diseases or conditions, improved manufacturing efficiency, and better use of valuable medical professional resources. The technology has already found its way into multifarious applications in healthcare such as diagnostic imaging agents, drug delivery systems, pathogen detection systems, biosensors, tissue engineering, microfluidics, lab-on-a-chip, compact electronic systems.

Performance of nanopolyaniline-fungal enzyme based biosensor for water pollution

B.S. Kushwah; S.C. Upadhyaya; Shipra Shukla; Apurva Singh Sikarwar; R.M.S. Sengar; Seema Bhadauria

Advanced Materials Letters, 2011, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 43-51
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2010.8149

The Laccases are oxidoreductases belonging to the multinuclear copper-containing oxidases; they catalyse the monoelectronic oxidation of substrates at the expense of molecular oxygen. These essentially ecofriendly enzymes work with air and produce water as the only by-product. Their uses span from the textile to the pulp and paper industries, and from food applications to bioremediation processes. Laccases also have uses in organic synthesis, where their typical substrates are phenols and amines, and the reaction products are dimers and oligomers derived from the coupling of reactive radical intermediates. Laccase from Pleurotus ostreatus was extracted from the Shaken flask cultures of Pleurotus ostreatus and grown at 25°C with continuous agitation (110 rpm) in baffled Erlenmeyer flasks (1000 mL) containing 200 mL medium. The basal glucose yeast extract peptone agar medium (GYP medium) used for cultures unless otherwise stated contained 20 g glucose L -1 , 5 g yeast extract L -1 , 5 g peptone L −1 and 1 g MgSO4.7H2O L −1 . The pH was adjusted to 5±0 with H3PO4 prior to sterilization. The kinetics of oxidation reactions catalyzed by laccase was studied using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS). The laccase showed lower specific activity. Enzyme modified electrodes were fabricated with polyaniline. Electrochemical polymerization of aniline was performed to get the film of polymer on the surface of glass electrode. First, ITO/PANI electrode was reduced by a 15 min cathodic polarization of the sensor at -500 mV in 0.1 M acetate buffer, pH 5.5. After cathodic polarization, the film was immersed in 0.1 M of acetate buffer, pH 5.5 containing enzyme solution for the deposition of enzyme in polymer layer at +650 mV for 20 min. During this oxidation process laccase become electrostatically attached to polymer film. The ITO/PANI/LAC electrode was rinsed with deionised water to remove any loosely bounded enzyme, and stored in buffer solution at 4 o C, when not in use. Conducting polymer/enzyme modified electrodes prepared by immobilization of enzyme were tested for electrocatalytic activities towards amperometric sensing of phenol in industrial effluent.