Nanotechnology is the ability to manipulate individual atoms and molecules in a way to create nano-structured materials and objects from 1 to 100 nanometers. Because of the size new changes in their chemical and physical structure may occur, which could indicate higher reactivity and solubility. Nanotechnology as a new empower technology, has opened up new horizons for applications in many fields including human and veterinary medicine. Examples of potential applications of nanotechnology in the science and engineering include disease treatment, delivery systems, new materials for pathogen detection, etc. The variety of nanomaterials that are used for disease diagnosis, treatment, drug delivery, animal nutrition, animal breeding, reproduction and value addition to animal products; these are metallic nanoparticles, quantum dots, carbon nanotubes, magnetic nanoparticles, nanoporous membranes. For a long time, nanoparticles have been used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents in human and veterinary medicine, although their use in animal production is still relatively new. Areas of particular interest for animal and human health include disease diagnosis, target drug delivery systems, vaccine transfer, and nutrition. Research in the field of nanotechnology will contribute to improving animal and human health and will help to increase livestock production.