Volume 4, Issue 3, March 2013


Advanced Materials World Congress (AMWC)

Ashutosh Tiwari

Advanced Materials Letters, 2013, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 174-174
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2013.3001

We are glad to announce Advanced Materials Word Congress (AMWC, http://www.amwc2013.org/) together with the International Association of Advanced Materials (www.iaamonline.org) and hosted by the Ä°zmir Institute of Technology in the beautiful coastal town ÇeÅŸme, Turkey at Altinyunus Hotel ÇeÅŸme during 16-19 September, 2013. The goal of congress is to provide a global platform for researchers and engineers coming from academia and industry to present their research results and activities in the field of materials science and engineering with a special attention on interdisciplinary research of advanced materials. The conference will provide opportunities for the delegates to exchange their face-to-face novel ideas and experiences with the international experts during plenary & invited talks, oral presentations and poster sessions. We will set up ten sessions with keynote forum, panel discussion and project negotiation. The full article of presentations will be published in the special issue of Advanced Materials Letters.

Nanoscale Device for Veterinay Technology: Trends And Future Prospective

Neeraj Dilbaghi; Harmanmeet Kaur; Ritesh Kumar; Pooja Arora; Sandeep Kumar

Advanced Materials Letters, 2013, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 175-184
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2012.7399

Nanotechnology is an interdisciplinary science comprising of various disciplines such as physics, chemistry, electronics, material science, health science, biology and veterinary science. The ability to manufacture and manipulate material at nanoscale has offered opportunities to interface biological systems with outer world in new ways and with unprecedented precision. Veterinary science deals with all non human animals including wildlife and domesticated animals, livestock, working animals and companion animals. Nanotechnology has contributed in revolutionizing health and veterinary sciences by providing new tools and new materials for molecular and cellular biology that are beneficial for living organisms. The variety of nanomaterials that are used for diagnosis and treatment include metallic nanoparticle, quantum dots, carbon nanotubes, magnetic nanoparticles, fullerenes, liposomes, dendrimers and engineered hybrid nanoparticles. However, at present, little data is available on the ecotoxicological and toxicological effects associated with these nanomaterials and hence there is a need to address these issues as physiological properties of nanomaterials are expected to influence their biological response. It is believed that in the upcoming years, nanotechnology will reform the science and technology of the animal health and will help to boost up the livestock production. Nanotechnology based techniques like bioanalytical nanosensors, nanofluidics, targeted drug delivery etc has the potential to solve problems related to diagnosis and treatment of diseases. In this review, we emphasize on how nanotechnology is swiftly changing the diagnosis and treatment patterns at faster and low cost in less time duration. There can be numerous applications of nanotechnology in disease diagnosis, treatment, drug delivery, animal nutrition, animal breeding, tissue engineering and animal identity verification. The role of nanotechnology in veterinary sciences is chiefly discussed as how nanomaterials can modernize the present life.

Equivalent circuit models and analysis of impedance spectra of solid electrolyte  Na0.25Li0.75Zr2(PO4)3

U. Ahmadu; S. Tomas; S. A. Jonah; A. O. Musa; N. Rabiu

Advanced Materials Letters, 2013, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 185-195
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2012.7396

Two RC model circuits are connected in series in order to analyze the electrical and dielectric behaviour of mixed alkali Na0.25Li0.75Zr2(PO4)3 NASICON compound. However, the data obtained could best be described by one RC circuit representing the grain boundary resistance () and capacitance () in the temperature and frequency range 300-600 K and 300 kHz to 1GHz, respectively. The values of the grain boundary activation energy obtained by fitting to the Arrhenius equation in a plot is ~ 0.40 eV, which is close to the bulk activation energy for electrical conduction. The maximum conductivity obtained is 0.3 S/m at 590 K. A non Debye character was observed in the dielectric permitivity in its frequency dependence. However, the temperature dependence of followed a linear behaviour at low temperatures and frequencies but decreased at higher temperatures. Complex non linear least squares fitting of impedance data using a composite circuit shows good fitting results with relative standard deviation less than 0.2 for all the free parameters which is indicative of the accuracy of data obtained. Similar good fitting results, using a generic battery model, suggest the applicability of the material in rechargeable lithium ion batteries.

Low Temperature Sensing Of NO2 Gas Using SnO2-ZnO Nanocomposite Sensor

Advanced Materials Letters, 2013, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 196-201
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2012.7390

In the present work an effort has been made to synthesize nanocrystalline composites (NCC) of Zinc oxide and Tin oxide (ZSO) using chemical route for efficient sensing of NO2 gas at lower operating temperature. The structural, microstructural and optical information have been revealed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV-Visible spectroscopy respectively. Sensor structure showed a better sensing response (S ~ 6.64×10 2 ) at a relatively low operating temperature of 70 °C for 20 ppm NO2 gas with an average response time of about 2 min. The sensing response characteristics for NO2 gas has been compared with corresponding results obtained for pure SnO2 and ZnO thin film based sensor structure.

Manganese Doped Cadmium Sulphide (CdS: Mn) quantum Particles: Topological, photoluminescence And Magnetic Studies

P. Venkatesu; K. Ravichandran

Advanced Materials Letters, 2013, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 202-206
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2012.7379

Nano-polycrystalline samples of cadmium sulphide doped with 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 atomic % of Mn were prepared by a template based chemical route. The presence of thiophenol as template on the surface of the samples has been detected with FTIR technique. Particle sizes of 15-50 nm range, hexagonal structure and polycrystalline nature of the samples have been identified through SEM and TEM techniques. Surface states in the band gap region of the samples confirmed by PL study also revealed that the size of the particles is in the nano range. The low temperature magnetization study suggested the 10 at.% Mn doped sample might be in a re-entrant-spin glass phase at 77 K.

Characterization and Photoluminescence Of Sr2CeO4: Eu+3, La+3

Ch. Atchyutha Rao; Poornachandra Rao V. Nannapaneni; K. V. R. Murthy

Advanced Materials Letters, 2013, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 207-212
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2012.7395

In this paper we report the synthesis and luminescence of strontium cerium oxide (Sr2CeO4:Eu 3+ (0.5mol%),La 3+ (0.5mol%) prepared by solid state reaction method in air at 12000C.These samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and photoluminescence (PL) techniques, particle size analysis. The photo luminescence (PL) spectra of pure and Eu 3+ , La 3+ codoped Sr2CeO4 were recorded at room temperature. Sr2CeO4 phosphor was effectively excited around 250 nm and observed a broad emission band peak around 467 nm. XRD data revealed that the structure of Sr2CeO4 is orthorhombic, and the mean crystallite size of Sr 2CeO4 and Sr2CeO4: Eu 3+ , La 3+ were 9 nm and 11nm respectively. The colour co-ordinates of Sr2CeO4 were x = 0.16 and y = 0.18 and CIE co-ordinates revealed that the present phosphors may be used in white light applications.

Encapsulation of N,N-ethylenebis(salicylamide) Metal Complexes In Fly ash Based Zeolite, Characterization and Catalytic Activity

T. Peter Amaladhas; S. Sheeba Thavamani

Advanced Materials Letters, 2013, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 213-219
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2012.7380

Coal fly ash has been used to synthesize X-type zeolite by alkali fusion followed by hydrothermal treatment. The synthesized fly ash based zeolite (FAZ) has been characterized by various analytical techniques. Copper(II), Nickel(II) and Zinc(II) complexes of N,N 1 -ethylenebis (salicylamide) encapsulated in the supercages of FAZ have been prepared by flexible ligand method and characterized by Fourier Transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), Ultra Violet – Visible spectroscopy and Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). These complexes have been found to catalyze the liquid phase hydroxylation of phenol with hydrogen peroxide to yield catechol. It appears to be the first report of catalysis of metal complex encapsulated in fly ash based zeolite.

Study of optical And Ferroelectric Behavior Of ZnO Nanostructures

Prakash Chand; Anurag Gaur; Ashavani Kumar

Advanced Materials Letters, 2013, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 220-224
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2012.7391

In the present work, we have synthesized ZnO nanostructures by sol-gel method in air at different selected sintering temperatures ranging from room temperature to 400 0 C and studied their structural, optical and ferroelectric properties. The synthesized samples are characterized by X-ray diffractrometer for structural properties and the optical properties are measured through UV-Visible spectrophotometer and Photoluminescence. The X-ray diffraction pattern indicates the pure phase formation of ZnO. Furthermore, photoluminescence spectra also confirm the formation of wurtzite structure of ZnO. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) studies show that the particle size of ZnO nanostructures increases with increasing the sintering temperature. The optical band gaps calculated through UV spectroscopy are found to be decreasing from 4.47 to 3.73 eV for samples sintered at room temperature to 400 0 C, respectively. Moreover, a weak ferroelectricity has been observed in ZnO nanostructures at room temperature through Polarization vs Electric field (P-E) loops.

Effect of copper on composition, structural and optical properties of copper doped znte thin films

R. Amutha

Advanced Materials Letters, 2013, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 225-229
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2012.7387

Ultrathin (250 Å) initial deposit of copper on glass substrates were used for the subsequent deposition of ZnTe films under a pressure of 10 -5 m.bar by thermal evaporation method. The decrease of atomic percentage of copper with increase of the ZnTe film thickness is confirmed by EDAX analysis. The phase change from hexagonal to cubic structure is observed by XRD analysis. The strain (), grain size (D) and dislocation density ( ) were calculated and results are discussed. The transmittance and the optical bandgap energy were found decreases when increases of ZnTe film thickness. The optical transition of these films is found to be direct allowed. 

Friction Stir Processing Of Intermetallic particulate Reinforced Aluminum Matrix composite

G. Ashok Kumar; I. Dinaharan; S. J. Vijay; N. Murugan

Advanced Materials Letters, 2013, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 230-234
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2012.7398

Friction stir processing (FSP) is a novel solid state technique to refine the microstructure of metallic materials. The objective of this work is to apply FSP to change the morphology and distribution of intermetallic particles and achieve property enhancement. AA6061/8wt. % Al3Zr composite was produced by the in situ reaction of molten aluminum and inorganic salt K2ZrF6. Optical and scanning electron micrographs revealed a uniform distribution of needle shape Al3Zr particles in the aluminum matrix. The Al3Zr particles were located in the inter granular spaces. A double pass FSP was carried out using a tool rotational speed of 1200 rpm, processing speed of 50 mm/min and axial force of 8 kN. A tool made of HCHCr steel; oil hardened to 62 HRC, having a hexagonal profile was used. The needle shape Al3Zr particles were fragmented and converted into a spherical shape subsequent to FSP which resulted an increase in the hardness of the composite.

Effect Of Processing Conditions On Transient liquid Phase Sintering Of Premixed Aluminium alloy Powders

N. B. Dhokey; V. A. Athavale; N. Narkhede; M. Kamble

Advanced Materials Letters, 2013, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 235-240
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2012.8402

Aluminium powder metallurgy is attracting attention of many researchers for making near net shape components by replacing conventional process of liquid metallurgy. In the present work, sintering response of a 2xxx series aluminium powder premix, containing 4.5Cu-1Si-0.8Mg (by wt %) blended without any lubricant in a mixer with a ball to powder ratio of 10:1 (by wt) has been studied. The higher mixing time of 6 hours and compacting pressure of 450 MPa gave 90% theoretical sintered density and hardness of 91 HRH with uniform distribution of alloying elements and optimal dimensional growth.

Mechanical Properties Of Multifunctional Epoxy  resin/glass Fiber Reinforced Composites Modified  with Poly(ether Imide)

Jagrati Kandpal; Samar B. Yadaw; Arun K. Nagpal

Advanced Materials Letters, 2013, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 241-249
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2012.8403

In the present paper effect of thermoplastic on various mechanical and thermal properties of multifunctional epoxy resin have been studied. Epoxy phenol novolac resin has been cured with hardner diamino, diphenyl sulfone. Changes in mechanical and thermal properties of epoxy phenol novolac resin with engineering thermoplastic poly (ether imide) have been investigated. Specimens were prepared using different mixing orders for multifunctional epoxy resin with poly (ether imide). Effect on glass transition temperature (Tg) were observed by using DSC measurements. Variation in mechanical properties viz. Tensile strength, flexural strength, flexural modulus, interlaminar shear strength and impact strength have been observed. With the thermoplastic modification of thermoset matrix material, improvement in mechanical properties of epoxy-glass fiber reinforced composites have been expected. Changes in storage modulus and loss modulus of all specimens were also evaluated by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate the relationship between the morphological study of the fractured epoxy resins and mechanical properties of the modified epoxy resins and glass fiber reinforced composites. If the polymer matrix is fairly brittle (unmodified epoxy), there may be a corresponding reduction in mechanical properties. Incorporation of engineering thermoplastic Poly (ether-imide) has resulted in improvement of above stated mechanical properties. All results indicated that thermoplastic modified multifunctional epoxy resin proved to be a good matrix material which enhances the mechanical properties of glass fiber reinforced composites.

Book Review On Integrated Biomaterials For  biomedical Technology

Mehrdad Rafat

Advanced Materials Letters, 2013, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 250-250
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2013.3002

This book covers a wide range of biomaterials from polymers and ceramics to metals, composites, nanomaterials, and biosensor materials for various biomedical applications. I strongly recommend this book for those who have a basic knowledge in biomaterials who want to expand their knowledge and to know more about biomaterials’ applications. Having said that, the book is so well-designed that is understandable by those with no prior knowledge in biomaterials such as students and young researchers or experienced researchers in other fields. For instance, at the beginning of each chapter, there is an introduction section with enough background information, which prepares the readers for the next sections. More specifically, I’m quite impressed with the application sections providing the readers with real-world health problems and how a specific biomaterial or a medical device, which is comprised of several biomaterials, can address those problems. This book can definitely help bridging the gap between science and technology in the biomedical field. I would like to congratulate the editors and the authors of this book for the excellent work and look forward to their next contribution to the field.