Volume 12, Issue 3, March 2021

Perspectives on Published Energy Sources and Smart Energy Supplies

Zhihao Li; Jiapeng Su; Anjun Jerry Jin

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 3, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2021.031607

This article presents a perspective of the several modern alternative energy generation technologies. Moreover, authors facilitate the case study of the application of an emerging energy blockchain (EBC) technology and the Published Energy Sources (PES). A methodical analysis utilizes the EBC input parameters as follows: power generation such as multi-energy complementarity, energy storage, and the smart grid power that has a smart meter and/or control within the EBC system. On the other hand, the EBC technology has several variables as output that includes the following: (1) power consumption focusing on renewable energies; (2) technology enabling financial saving and earning method; (3) peer to peer energy transaction according to the EBC platform.

State of Art Review on Nanobubbles

Ajinkya Kailas Pote; Pooja Jayram Jadhav; Vishal Vijay Pande; Mahendra Ashok Giri; Shubham Rameshrao Pandit

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 3, Pages 1-9
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2021.031608

Nanotechnology has proved an emerging field in diagnostic in drug delivery. The current review has done special emphasis on the history of nanobubble, nomenclature, stability of nanobubble, physico-chemical properties, characterization of nanobubble, method of preparation and applications. The nanobubbles has now been explored for its antibiotic delivery, gene delivery, targeting drug delivery, anticancer drug delivery, improving cellular uptake of chemotherapy drugs into cancer cell lines. Nanobubbles (NBs) opened a new field of ultrasound imaging and used as a diagnostic method. The article explored a novel application like oxygen delivery through nanobubble which is highly beneficial in most of the diseases.

Eggshell Membrane Assisted CdS Nanoparticles for Manganese Removal in Water Treatment  

Anurag Roy; Sasireka Velusamy; Tapas K. Mallick; Senthilarasu Sundaram

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 3, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2021.031609

Domestic food waste chicken eggshells can produce naturally abundant protein-based eggshell membranes (ESMs), which is used as a less-explored source of sulphur to synthesize hexagonal CdS nanoparticles (NPs) under 365 nm (UVA) light irradiation. The perspective of CdS NPs synthesis in the way of UVA light irradiation soakage technique using ESM is distinctive compare to other traditional methods. Various physicochemical methods were employed to validate the formation of CdS NP using ESM assisted process. The obtained NPs exhibit an average particle size of ~5 nm as obtained from the transmission electron microscopy study. The capability of the synthesized CdS NPs was further explored in the catalysis reaction for the decomposition of KMnO4, considered as toxic Mn VII (violet) ion source at room temperature. The degradation results as monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometry analysis confirms the CdS NPs exhibit excellent catalytic activity towards the reduction of KMnO4, toxic Mn VII (violet) ion to MnO2 as non-toxic Mn IV (brownish yellow) ion in aqueous solution (pH 7.0) at room temperature by 50 min. The KMnO4 decomposition reaction follows a pseudo-first-order reaction having the rate constant value of 1.9 x 10 -2 min -1 . This study encourages the potential use of natural waste materials for wastewater treatment.

Green Chemistry Synthesis of Nano-Hydroxyapatite using Natural Stabilisers

Sreedevi Nimishakavi; V. Madhusudhan Rao; A. K. Singh

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 3, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2021.031610

Present work describes the synthesis and characterization of Nano- Hydroxyapatite (nano-HAP) powders through green chemistry route, using Natural Stabilizers (NS) as precursors. The synthesized powders possess crystallite and particles of sizes in nano range. The nature of the powder is poly dispersive. The morphology of synthesized powders is near spherical and the pH value is greater than the ten. The powder possesses similar dielectric constant value of 100 Hz at room temperature, as reported in literature. The corresponding wave numbers of the nano-HAP powder match with the reported functional groups.  

Structural, Optical and Electrical Properties of CaSnO3 and Ca0.98Nd0.02Sn0.98Ti0.02O3 Synthesized using Sol-Gel Method

Aditya Kumar; Bushra Khan; Gulab Singh; Manoj K. Singh; Upendra Kumar

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 3, Pages 1-9
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2021.031611

Single phase sample of CaSnO3 and Ca0.98Nd0.02Sn0.98Ti0.02O3 were synthesized by sol-gel route followed by calcination at 800 o C. The X-ray diffraction pattern of both samples showed monophasic, and their Rietveld refinement studies indicated that the samples belonged to orthorhombic crystal structure under space group Pbnm. Moreover, dopant substitution results in unit cell compression due to lower ionic radii of dopant than host. UV-Vis. spectroscopy study of samples reflected semiconducting samples. The direct optical band gap of doped sample found smaller (4.02 eV) than undoped (4.23 eV), due to formation of Nd 3+ state below conduction band. The dielectric constant of both samples (30 and 18) was found to be temperature independent up to 220 o C and 300 o C and tangent loss below 1 makes it suitable candidate for thermally stable capacitor application. Ac conductivity of samples was analyzed using Arrhenius model as a function of frequency and temperature, and the value of activation energy is reflected an electronic as well as mixed ionic and electronic conduction in samples. Based on these studies, the present material can be used in UV-filter, sensors, and mixed ionic and electronic conductor applications.

Phase Change Materials Reinforced with Aluminium Foam for Latent Heat Storage

Jaroslav Jerz; Arun Gopinathan; Jaroslav Kováčik

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 3, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2021.031612

The structure of aluminium foam is highly porous consisting of aluminium (or its alloy) filling up the space among gas pores. Although pores formed during foaming of aluminium melt are closed, there are always microscopic cracks in the walls of solid foam, so that the porosity is predominantly open. This preference of aluminium foam allows to fill pores with a Phase Change Materials (PCMs) capable repeatedly to store and release a huge amount of latent heat of phase transition from solid to liquid state and vice versa. The excellent thermal conductivity of the aluminium, forming the pore walls, predetermines aluminium foam castings for the production of highly efficient heat exchangers in various industrial sectors, especially in the building industry. The most promising technique for the production of near-net-shaped structural components containing a dense aluminium surface skin and porous inner foamed aluminium structure is powder metallurgical route. Lightweight self-supporting interior ceiling panels impregnated by PCM presented in this contribution, utilize their high mechanical stiffness and their ability to store large amounts of latent heat at a constant temperature. The application of foamed aluminium appears to be very promising also for heat exchangers covering the entire pitched roof of the building which provides not only the better recovery of the heat from the building surroundings but also the dissipation of unwanted excess heat from the interior when needed.

Influence of Manganese and Copper Doping on Structural and Optical Properties of Chromium Oxide Nanoparticles

Jagriti Behl; Raksha Saini

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 3, Pages 1-5
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2021.031613

Mn and Cu-doped Cr2O3 nanoparticles were prepared by the co-precipitation method followed by calcination at 400 0 C for 3h. These synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and UV/Visible spectroscopy. SEM images showed the irregular and nearly spherical structure of the Undoped and doped Cr2O3 nanoparticles respectively. The particle size of obtained nanoparticles exhibits in the range of 30-60 nm.  X-ray diffraction study reveals at temperature 400 0 C, undoped and Cu-doped Cr2O3 nanoparticles exist in the crystalline phase and Mn-doped Cr2O3 nanoparticles exist in the amorphous phase. UV-Visible spectra have been used to determine the band gap of the synthesized nanoparticles. The optical band gap value has been calculated by using Tauc’s method and Kubelka Munk method. Results indicate band gap calculated by Kubelka-Munk method is higher (4.7, 4.5 and 4.32 eV) than Tauc’s method. (4.18, 4.0, 3.96 eV). It is also concluded the decrease in the band gap (in both Tauc’s and Kubelka Munk method) was observed by the addition of dopant.

Understanding of intriguing metal to semiconductor transition in Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticulates

Pooja Y. Raval; Shrey K. Modi; Khayati G. Vyas; Priya L. Mange; Kunal B. Modi

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 3, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2021.031614

Temperature-dependent electrical transport characteristics of un-milled and high-energy ball-milled  samples (3 h (70 nm), 6 h (55 nm) and 9 h (45 mm)) of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 spinel ferrite were explored. A well-defined metal to semiconductor transition exhibited by all the samples has been construed in view of direct and superexchange cationic interactions and delocalization to localization of charge carriers on increasing temperature. The peak temperature (Tmax) was found to shift towards a higher temperature side on milling principally governs by the lattice vibration scattering and intrinsic excitation. The crystallite size reduction, enhancement in strain and sudden decrease in the formation and octahedral site occupancy of Fe 2+ ions on milling found responsible for the prodigious rise (~ 250 times) in normalized resistivity values for the sample comminuted for 9 h. The spectrum of energies corresponds to charge trapping centers that cause small bump (3 h milled sample) and sharp cusp (9 h milled sample) for T>Tmax. These materials may be found suitable for thermal cutoff switching applications.

Flaw Resistance and Mode - I Fracture Energy Redistribution in Bamboo - A Correlation

Sayyad Mannan

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 3, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2021.031615

Bamboo is a unidirectional fibre-reinforced composite with radially graded and almost transversely isotropic elastic properties. The cracks originated in bamboo under bending due to wind loads propagate along the fibre direction. This process is controlled by interlaminar fracture toughness. In order to observe the spatial distribution of the fracture toughness in bamboo, energy release rate is theoretically deduced from the general equations for crack-tip stress fields in anisotropic bodies. The analysis shows that the fracture toughness has graded distribution and the trend is opposite to that of axial modulus. To verify this, the energy release rate (or fracture toughness) is experimentally calculated for double cantilever beam specimens (with a crack placed in different fibre density region) in mode-I i.e. crack opening mode. It is observed that the crack propagation parallel to fibres (splitting) develops easily and the energy release rate decreases with increased density of fibre bundles. The observed trend closely corroborates the results from theoretical analysis. From the results of real-time wind load simulations (reported elsewhere) on tapered bamboo-like structure it is concluded that with the help of radially graded fracture toughness bamboo converts flaws of all orientations into splitting mode.