Keywords : nanomaterials

Efficiency of Nanomaterials for Electrochemical Diagnostics based Point-of-Care Detection of Non-Invasive Oral Cancer Biomarkers

Neeraj Kumar; V. Sorna Gowri;Raju Khan; Pushpesh Ranjan; Mohd. Abubakar Sadique; Shalu Yadav; Ayushi Singhal; Alka Mishra; S. Murali

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 8, Pages 1-20
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2021.081651

Oral tumours are the sixth most incessant infection with high mortality and morbidity rates in human beings and they pose a serious threat worldwide owing to their soaring case-fatality rate and metastatic characteristics of spreading to other parts of the body. Nanomaterials as of late have become indispensable components for biosensor platforms due to their fantastic mechanical, electronic, and optical properties. Specific emphasis is laid in this review on electrochemical biosensors working at the molecular levels, which can be classified into mainly three groups i.e., DNA biosensors, RNA biosensors, and protein biosensors as indicated by the type of the analytes. The carbon-based and non-carbon-based nanomaterials utilizing electrochemical procedures for recognizing oral cancer biomarkers are also reviewed. An extensive review has been made to cover ongoing advancements in the field of nanomaterials based as electrochemical biosensors. This study mostly sums up the significant electrochemical methods, the ongoing advancements of electrochemical technique-based biosensor frameworks for the discovery of oral cancer biomarkers. This effort aims to provide the reader with a concise view of new advances in areas on oral cancer biomarkers for electrochemical signal amplification and the innovative electroanalytical techniques which have been utilized in the miniaturization and integration of the sensors.

Contribution of Nanotechnology in Animal and Human Health Care

Nadezhda Milanova Sertova

Advanced Materials Letters, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 9, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2020.091552

Nanotechnology is the ability to manipulate individual atoms and molecules in a way to create nano-structured materials and objects from 1 to 100 nanometers. Because of the size new changes in their chemical and physical structure may occur, which could indicate higher reactivity and solubility. Nanotechnology as a new empower technology, has opened up new horizons for applications in many fields including human and veterinary medicine. Examples of potential applications of nanotechnology in the science and engineering include disease treatment, delivery systems, new materials for pathogen detection, etc. The variety of nanomaterials that are used for disease diagnosis, treatment, drug delivery, animal nutrition, animal breeding, reproduction and value addition to animal products; these are metallic nanoparticles, quantum dots, carbon nanotubes, magnetic nanoparticles, nanoporous membranes. For a long time, nanoparticles have been used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents in human and veterinary medicine, although their use in animal production is still relatively new. Areas of particular interest for animal and human health include disease diagnosis, target drug delivery systems, vaccine transfer, and nutrition. Research in the field of nanotechnology will contribute to improving animal and human health and will help to increase livestock production.

Removal of dyes from wastewater by nanomaterials : A review

Wenqian Ruan; Jiwei Hu; Jimei Qi; Yu Hou; Chao Zhou; Xionghui Wei

Advanced Materials Letters, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 9-20
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2019.2148

Dyes are widely used to colour products in textile, leather tanning, cosmetics, pigment and many other industries. Effluents discharged from these industries cause potential hazards to environment and human health. Hence, the removal of dyes from water/wastewater has gained a huge attention in recent years. So far, biological, chemical and physical methods are the traditional techniques, of which adsorption is found to be a more effective and cheap method for removing dyes. Nanotechnology has applied successfully to the water/wastewater treatment and emerged as a fast-developing promising field. Application of nanomaterials (NMs) in dyes removal seems to be an efficient way. In this review, extensive literature information was presented with regard to dyes, its classification and toxicity, different methods for dyes removal including the removal of dyes by NMs. It is evident from the literature survey that NMs have shown good capability for the removal of dyes. 

Investigation Of Density Of States And Electrical Properties Of Chemically Synthesized Ba0.5Co0.5Bi2NbTaO9 Nanoceramics

Mrinal Kanti Adak; Prasanta Dhak; Atreyee Kundu; Debasis Dhak

Advanced Materials Letters, 2016, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 852-860
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2016.6203

In this present work, nanocrystalline Co 2+ and Ta 5+ substituted barium bismuth niobate Ba0.5Co0.5Bi2NbTaO9 was synthesized by chemical process. Room temperature single phase, tetragonal structure was confirmed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) study. Average crystallite and particle sizes were found to be 33 nm and 40 nm, when analyzed through XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) respectively. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) was used for micro-structural investigation of samples sintered at 950?C for 4h. The investigation revealed that the material was exhibiting high dielectric constant value of 1017 at Curie temperature (Tc), 500?C when measured at 10 kHz. Impedance spectroscopy analysis showed that above 425?C, the material exhibited both bulk and grain boundary conductivities which were evidenced from FESEM studies. Density of states, minimum hoping distance, binding energy etc. were studied along with other electrical properties from impedance analysis. Hysteresis behavior was also investigated using polarization study.

Synthesis And Doping Feasibility Of Composite-hydroxide-mediated Approach For The Cu1-xZnxO Nanomaterials

Tauseef Shahid; Muhammad Arfan; Waqas Ahmad; Tayyaba BiBi; Taj Muhammad Khan

Advanced Materials Letters, 2016, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 561-566
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2016.6384

In this article, we report feasibility of composite hydroxide-mediated (CHM) approach for the synthesis and doping of Cu1-xZnxO (x=0%, 3%, 6% and 9%) nanomaterial. The proposed method offers a low cost, low temperature and environmentally friendly approach to preparing doped nanomaterials in a feasible and cost- effective route. Further, we investigate the effect of incorporated Zn +2 on the properties of produced Cu (II) O nanostructures. The X-ray diffraction analysis confirms formation of the single-phase monoclinic Cu (II) O and incorporation of Zn at the Cu-lattice sites. The crystalline structure is improved and the average grain size has increased from 85.32 nm to 124.86 nm. FTIR spectroscopy shows characteristic vibrational peaks of the Cu (II)-O bonding which confirms formation of the Cu (II) O. SEM micrographs reveal interesting flower like dense features with morphological peculiarities and seems to strongly depend on the content of the incorporated Zn +2 . The UV- visible spectra are measured to study the direct bandgap of the prepared nanomaterial. The direct bandgap found to be in the range of 3.73 - 3.89 eV. The method seems experimentally friendly and provides a feasible and a high productive fast synthesis route for the doped oxide nanomaterials in a single step with tunable properties for the research purposes. However, the method still requires further investigation to finely control doping for the desired properties of a nanomaterial and to give a potential avenue for further practical scale-up of the production process and applications of novel devices based on doped nanostructures.

A Comparative Study Of Polyurethane Nanofibers With Different Patterns And Its Analogous Nanofibers Containing MWCNTs

Javier Macossay; Faheem A Sheikh; Hassan Ahmad; Hern Kim; Gary L Bowlin

Advanced Materials Letters, 2015, Volume 6, Issue 9, Pages 768-773
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2015.5888

Tissue engineering is a multidisciplinary field that has evolved in various dimensions in recent years. One of the main aspects in this field is the proper adjustment and final compatibility of implants at the target site of surgery. For this purpose, it is desired to have the materials fabricated at the nanometer scale, since these dimensions will ultimately accelerate the fixation of implants at the cellular level. In this study, electrospun polyurethane nanofibers and their analogous nanofibers containing MWCNTs are introduced for tissue engineering applications. Since MWCNTs agglomerate to form bundles, a high intensity sonication procedure was used to disperse them, followed by electrospinning the polymer solutions that contained these previously dispersed MWCNTs. Characterization of the produced nanofibers has confirmed production of different non-woven mats, which include random, semi-aligned and mostly aligned patterns. A simultaneous and comparative study was conducted on the nanofibers with respect to their thermal stability, mechanical properties and biocompatibility. Results indicate that the mostly aligned nanofibers pattern presents higher thermal stability, mechanical properties, and biocompatibility. Furthermore, incorporation of MWCNTs among the different arrangements significantly improved the mechanical properties and cell alignment along the nanofibers.

 Research Progress Of “Nanomaterials” In Ten Years

Lokman Uzun

Advanced Materials Letters, 2015, Volume 6, Issue 8, Pages 670-672
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2015.8001

After starting to compile one of the growing subject areas of “Energy” under Advanced Materials research in the last issue, we have extracted the data in accordance to cover “Nanomaterials” for the current issue. Herein, we collected the data for last ten years and separated into 1) beginning of five years and 2) latter five years. The comparative research progress of “Nanomaterials” has been achieved at two time intervals through last ten years. In this respect, we discuss the variations in the document types and subject area meanwhile we also present the variation in the ranking of top-ten countries working in the field .

Functional Nanomaterials For Energy And Sustainability

Antonios Kelarakis

Advanced Materials Letters, 2014, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 236-241
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2014.amwc1026

In view of the continuous decline in fossil fuel reserves, at a time when energy demands are steadily increasing, a diverse range of emerging nanotechnologies promise to secure modern solutions to the prehistoric energy problem. Each one of those distinct approaches capitalizes on different principles, concepts and methodologies to address different application requirements, but their common objective is to open a window to a sustainable energy future. Consequently, they all deserve substantial (though not necessarily equal) consideration from the scientific and engineering community. In this review we present bottom-up strategies that show great promise for the development of a new generation of advanced materials for energy applications without compromising the public safety or the environment.

Impact Of Nanotoxicology Towards Technologists To End Users

Chan Oeurn Chey; Wetra Yandi;Ashutosh Tiwari; Hirak K Patra; Mattias Tengdelius; Mohsen Golabi; Onur Parlak; Roghayeh Imani; Sami A. I. Elhag

Advanced Materials Letters, 2013, Volume 4, Issue 8, Pages 591-597
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2013.8002

The length scale for nanomaterial is small enough to be invisible and presume innocence for the initial avoidance of the toxicity issues. Again it was beyond the understanding of the time frame when nanotechnology just blooms that a length scale itself might be an important toxic parameter apart from its materialistic properties. We present this report to address the fundamental issues and questions related to the nanotoxicity issues from laboratory to the land of applications. We emphasize about the basic nanoscale materials that are regularly being used by the scientific community and the nanotechnology based materials that has already in the market or will come soon.

Transition Metal Ion-induced Anisotropic Architectures Using 4,4’-dicarboxy-2,2’-bipyridyl-silver Nanopetals

Narayanasamy Vilvamani; Sasanka Deka; Tarkeshwar Gupta

Advanced Materials Letters, 2013, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 252-260
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2012.8405

Designing anisotropic nano- and micro-structures are imperative in many technology oriented fields. Here we have reported a self templating method, where flower like microstructure of silver particles were used as template to generate several anisotropic structures such as rectangular cum dumbbell, cubes, hexagonal whiskers, and rectangular bars etc. under controlled catalytic activity of Co 2+ , Ni 2+ , Cu 2+ , and Zn 2+ respectively. The initial flower like microstructure (template) of silver particles have been prepared from silver salt using disodium salt of 4,4’-dicarboxy-2,2’-bipyridyl(Na2dcbpy) as the reducing as well as capping agent. Then this architecture was used as the initial template to generate several anisotropic structures. The straightforward anisotropic microstructure preparation procedure does not require any other external template, which avoids the subsequent complicated workup. The nucleation processes and optical properties were studied using optical absorption spectroscopy. The anisotropic structure of the as-synthesized Ag particles and the formations of various shaped microstructures have been confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). A possible mechanism has been proposed explaining the role of dcbpy in the growth of silver particles and the transition metal ion induced anisotropic structures.

Nanoscale Device for Veterinay Technology: Trends And Future Prospective

Neeraj Dilbaghi; Harmanmeet Kaur; Ritesh Kumar; Pooja Arora; Sandeep Kumar

Advanced Materials Letters, 2013, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 175-184
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2012.7399

Nanotechnology is an interdisciplinary science comprising of various disciplines such as physics, chemistry, electronics, material science, health science, biology and veterinary science. The ability to manufacture and manipulate material at nanoscale has offered opportunities to interface biological systems with outer world in new ways and with unprecedented precision. Veterinary science deals with all non human animals including wildlife and domesticated animals, livestock, working animals and companion animals. Nanotechnology has contributed in revolutionizing health and veterinary sciences by providing new tools and new materials for molecular and cellular biology that are beneficial for living organisms. The variety of nanomaterials that are used for diagnosis and treatment include metallic nanoparticle, quantum dots, carbon nanotubes, magnetic nanoparticles, fullerenes, liposomes, dendrimers and engineered hybrid nanoparticles. However, at present, little data is available on the ecotoxicological and toxicological effects associated with these nanomaterials and hence there is a need to address these issues as physiological properties of nanomaterials are expected to influence their biological response. It is believed that in the upcoming years, nanotechnology will reform the science and technology of the animal health and will help to boost up the livestock production. Nanotechnology based techniques like bioanalytical nanosensors, nanofluidics, targeted drug delivery etc has the potential to solve problems related to diagnosis and treatment of diseases. In this review, we emphasize on how nanotechnology is swiftly changing the diagnosis and treatment patterns at faster and low cost in less time duration. There can be numerous applications of nanotechnology in disease diagnosis, treatment, drug delivery, animal nutrition, animal breeding, tissue engineering and animal identity verification. The role of nanotechnology in veterinary sciences is chiefly discussed as how nanomaterials can modernize the present life.

VUV excited photoluminescence of Eu3+ doped Y2O3 nanoparticles

Prashant K. Sharma; Ranu K. Dutta; Avinash C. Pandey

Advanced Materials Letters, 2011, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 285-289
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.indias.195

Spherical nanoparticles of Y2O3:Eu 3+ with cubic phase has been synthesized by solution combustion method using glycine as chelating agent and urea as fuel. The 1200 °C annealed sample yield intense red luminescence at 610 nm corresponding to 5 D0→ 7 F2 transition of Eu 3+ ion under vacuum ultraviolet (VUV)/ultraviolet (UV) excitation. Furthermore, the luminescence decay time of the 5 D0→ 7 F2 transition at 610 nm was also calculated against the 147 nm VUV excitation and found to be ~ 4 ms. These highly luminescent spherical nanopartcles of Y2O3:Eu 3+ seems to be one of the promising candidates for modern age display devices.

Bio- Nanomaterials For Versatile Bio- Molecules Detection Technology

Ravindra P. Singh;Jeong-Woo Choi

Advanced Materials Letters, 2010, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 83-84
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2010.4109

Over the past few years, bionanomaterial research has emerged as a new exciting field and the importance of DNA, RNA and peptides in designing bionanomaterials for the fundamental development in biotechnology and nanomaterials has begun to be recognized as a new interdisciplinary frontier in field of life science and material science. Great advances in nanobiochip materials, nanoscale biomimetic materials, nanomotors, nanocomposite materials, interface biomaterials, and nanobiosensor and nano drug delivery systems have enormous prospect in industrial, defense, and clinical medicine applications. Bio-molecules are very important elements in nanoscience and nanotechnology. Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) replace DNA as a probe for biomolecular tool in the molecular genetics diagnostics, cytogenetic, and various pharmaceutical potentials as well as for the development of sensors/arrays/chips and many more purposes.