Oral tumours are the sixth most incessant infection with high mortality and morbidity rates in human beings and they pose a serious threat worldwide owing to their soaring case-fatality rate and metastatic characteristics of spreading to other parts of the body. Nanomaterials as of late have become indispensable components for biosensor platforms due to their fantastic mechanical, electronic, and optical properties. Specific emphasis is laid in this review on electrochemical biosensors working at the molecular levels, which can be classified into mainly three groups i.e., DNA biosensors, RNA biosensors, and protein biosensors as indicated by the type of the analytes. The carbon-based and non-carbon-based nanomaterials utilizing electrochemical procedures for recognizing oral cancer biomarkers are also reviewed. An extensive review has been made to cover ongoing advancements in the field of nanomaterials based as electrochemical biosensors. This study mostly sums up the significant electrochemical methods, the ongoing advancements of electrochemical technique-based biosensor frameworks for the discovery of oral cancer biomarkers. This effort aims to provide the reader with a concise view of new advances in areas on oral cancer biomarkers for electrochemical signal amplification and the innovative electroanalytical techniques which have been utilized in the miniaturization and integration of the sensors.