Peripheral nerve injury poses a great threat to the involved individuals’ life quality. Given the situation that the current clinical treatments have limitations, it is urgent to seek for alternative therapies. Artificial nerve guide conduits can bridge nerve gaps and the underlying mechanism is worth studying. In this perspective, we propose that a high-performance nerve guide conduit repairs peripheral nerve by rectifying the injury-induced microenvironment imbalance. And we analyse four different ways to stabilize the disturbed microenvironment: (i) nourish the distal nerve end, (ii) stabilize the immune response, (iii) rectify the energy metabolic disturbance, (iv) restore the bioelectrical signal conduction.