In this study, we report the antibacterial and anticancer activity of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) prepared by sugar-fueled solution combustion synthesis. The structure and morphology of the sample were determined by XRD, UV-visible, FESEM and HRTEM. Surface area measurement was carried out by standard Brunauer-Emmett-Teller technique. Antibacterial activity of ZnO NPs was tested against Clostridium perfringens and Salmonella enterica by well diffusion method. The anticancer efficacy of ZnO nanoparticles was carried out on breast cancer cells MCF-7. The antibacterial results affirm that spherical ZnO NPs constitute as a successful bactericidal agent against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Anticancer result indicates that ZnO NPs exert dose dependent toxicity in MCF-7.