In this study chitosan (CTS) has been grafted with itaconic acid (IA) by following microwave assisted grafting method. Three different types of nanomaterials namely nanoclay, cloisite 30B and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) have also been incorporated during the grafting reaction. The synthesized nanocomposites were used for the removal of napthol green, reactive black and congo red dyes from aqueous solutions. Results showed enhanced dye adsorption capacity after addition of nanomaterials. The adsorption isotherm fitted well with Langmuir model. It was observed that CTS grafted IA composite with cloisite 30B exhibited highest napthol green adsorption rate compared to others. CTS grafted IA composite with MWCNT showed better congo red and reactive black adsorption rate as compared to CTS nanocomposite modified with nanoclay and cloisite 30B. The swelling kinetics in acidic, basic and neutral medium was found to follow pseudo second order kinetic model. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis showed successful grafting of IA on CTS. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and morphological characteristics suggested enhanced dispersion of nanomaterials in CTS matrix.