Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Clinical Pharmacy & Pharmacology, Ibn Sina National College For Medical Studies, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

2 Department of General Sciences, Ibn Sina National College For Medical Studies, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

3 Faculty of Microbiology and Immunology, Ibn Sina National College of Medical Sciences, Al Mahjar Street: 31906, Jeddah 21418, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

4 Department of Emergency Medicine, Yashoda Hospitals, Malakpet, Hyderabad, India


Irrational drug prescribing is considered one of the prime challenges for the healthcare sectors worldwide, leading to baneful outcomes in patients. The World Health Organization (WHO) drug use indicators include prescribing indicators, patient care indicators and facility indicators and prescribing indicators measure the performance of health care providers in several key dimensions related to the appropriate use of drugs. Patient care indicators are used to understand the way drugs are used. To evaluate the trends and issues related to prescription, patient care and facility at outpatient clinics in Jeddah and to contrast that to the WHO drug use indicators. A Cross-sectional study conducted between January to April 2019. A total of 153 prescriptions were collected from outpatient clinics of private and governmental hospitals were analyzed according to WHO guidelines. The statistical calculations were performed using Microsoft excel software. The results illustrate that the average number of drugs per prescription was 4.56 and the percentage of encounter with antibiotics was 8.4. A comparatively encouraging observations were observed during generic prescribing as it was observed to be 54.2%, the percentage of encounters with injection was 7.8 and the percentage of drugs prescribed from essential drug list (EDL) or formulary was 92%. The prescribed drugs average number per encounter was greater than what was considered ideal according to WHO standards; the other issue found was a lower percentage of generic prescribing compared to WHO ideal value, the rest of prescribing indicators including the prescribing from the essential drug list was almost similar to the ideal value recommended by the WHO (100%).

Graphical Abstract

Evaluation of Drug Utilization Patterns Based on World Health Organization Drug use Indicators at Outpatients Clinics