Raman micro-spectroscopy is recommended as an effective non-destructive method of detection and identification of various sp < sup > 2 carbon modifications, each being characterized by its own specific set of spectral band parameters (frequencies, intensities, half-widths and contours). The results of the authors obtained for numerous industrial sp < sup > 2 carbon samples (highly ordered and disordered graphites, turbostratic graphite, glassy carbons, carbon fibers, amorphous sp < sup > 2 carbon, nanotubes) as well as for natural species (terrestrial natural graphites and shungites, Lunar soil, meteoritic matter) are summarized, analyzed and compared. Literature data are also considered and discussed. The results show that the man-made advanced materials contain the same sp < sup > 2 carbon modifications as have been found in Nature (on Earth, Moon and in cosmic space). Copyright © VBRI Press.