The paper describes a modular approach based on click chemistry for the surface modification of magnetic oxide nanoparticles and their covalent inclusion within chemical hydrogels. As a proof of concept, we prepared cobalt ferrite nanoparticles and we modified their surfaces through the reaction with molecules bearing a carboxylic function and, alternatively, either an azide or an alkyne moiety. In the second step, the modified nanoparticles were reacted through a Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition with a molecule bearing an unsaturated function and either an alkyne or an azide moiety, respectively. Finally, the particles were successfully copolymerized with acrylamide and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide to obtain a magnetically responsive hydrogel. This approach could be easily extended towards any type of inorganic oxide nanoparticles and their inclusion within any radically co-polymerized hydrogel.