Issue 9

COVID-19: A Mechanistic Approach to Understand the Detrimental Consequences for Vaccine Development and Perspectives

Chander Amgoth; Tirupathi Malavath; Guping Tang

Advanced Materials Letters, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 9, Pages 1-4
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2020.091551

Herein, the mechanistic approach to understanding the characteristic properties of the deadliest virus (COVID-19) has been corroborated. The nano-sized (160-200 nm, in diameter) virus along with the crucial role of spikes (length ~10 nm) has been deliberated. The distorted protein envelope followed by the amino-acid sequence mismatching lead to replicate the virus. Fragmented ssRNA further make duplicate template copies through the mutations for net-work entanglement. Mutations lead to an increase in population density of virus uncountable. Drastic increase in the virus shows an adverse effect on the immune system. The inflamed sacs of lungs will not allow the exchange of gases and ultimately lead to pneumonia/SARS-CoV2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome of coronavirus). The glycoprotein of spike spindles fuses the surface of lung cells through the binding affinity and slowdown the activity of antibodies. Inflammation caused because of the replicated complex of virus blocks the passage of gases O2, CO2 which lead to severe cough and respiratory problems. This unusual phenomenon of pneumonia leads to death. Further, massive computing is needed to understand the exact detrimental consequences of COVID-19 followed by the drug and vaccine development.

Contribution of Nanotechnology in Animal and Human Health Care

Nadezhda Milanova Sertova

Advanced Materials Letters, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 9, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2020.091552

Nanotechnology is the ability to manipulate individual atoms and molecules in a way to create nano-structured materials and objects from 1 to 100 nanometers. Because of the size new changes in their chemical and physical structure may occur, which could indicate higher reactivity and solubility. Nanotechnology as a new empower technology, has opened up new horizons for applications in many fields including human and veterinary medicine. Examples of potential applications of nanotechnology in the science and engineering include disease treatment, delivery systems, new materials for pathogen detection, etc. The variety of nanomaterials that are used for disease diagnosis, treatment, drug delivery, animal nutrition, animal breeding, reproduction and value addition to animal products; these are metallic nanoparticles, quantum dots, carbon nanotubes, magnetic nanoparticles, nanoporous membranes. For a long time, nanoparticles have been used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents in human and veterinary medicine, although their use in animal production is still relatively new. Areas of particular interest for animal and human health include disease diagnosis, target drug delivery systems, vaccine transfer, and nutrition. Research in the field of nanotechnology will contribute to improving animal and human health and will help to increase livestock production.

Numerical and Analytical study on Axial Compression behaviour of Pultruded GFRP members

Vinanti Kulkarni; Mohit Jaiswal;Gangadhar Ramtekkar

Advanced Materials Letters, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 9, Pages 1-5
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2020.091553

From last decade, due to its lighter weight, resistance to the environmental attack, high tensile strength and corrosion resistance as compare to other construction materials, Pultruded profiles are used as a new innovative material in civil engineering construction applications. This paper addresses the buckling behaviour of pultruded profile of I cross section when subjected to uniform axial compression. In this, three different sizes of I-sections made of glass fibre and embedded in polyester matrix with pinned-pinned support condition are used. The Numerical and analytical study has been carried out and results of both the analysis are validated with the experimental results given by previous researcher which is demonstrated to be effective for buckling phenomenon of Pultruded section. Numerical analysis has been carried out using commercially available software package ANSYS and analytical behaviour is done by using EuroCode “JRC report EUR 27666 EN”. In the end, the results of numerical investigation are compared with analytical results and results are seems to be within range.

Optical Characterization of Double Perovskite Ba2FeNbO6 Powders Derived from Molten Salt Method

Yao Lu; Xiangxiao Meng; Zhipeng Pei; Kai Leng; Weiren Xia; Xinhua Zhu

Advanced Materials Letters, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 9, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2020.091554

Double perovskite Ba2FeNbO6 (BFN) powders were synthesized by molten salt method. Their optical properties were characterized by UV-Vis absorption spectra, and the band gaps (Eg) were determined to be 2.12 - 2.25 eV. The Eg values were tuned by adjusting the processing parameters of molten-salt route (e.g., annealing temperature, holding time as well as the molten salt ratios). The varied Eg values are ascribed to the different content ratios of Fe 3+ to Fe 2+ ions and the oxygen vacancies in the BFN powders. Oxygen vacancies in the BFN powders result in the distortions of FeO6 octahedrons, leading to different Fe-O bond lengths. Thus, the overlapping between the O-2p < /em> and Fe-3d orbitals is changed, making the Eg values changed. A small absorption shoulder with absorption edge at 650 nm (Eg ~ 1.91 eV) observed in the BFN powders, was ascribed to the d-d electronic transition from the Fe 3d-b2g to Fe 3d-b1g orbitals, which were formed by further splitting of Fe 3d orbitals in the distorted octahedral field. The present work offers an effective approach to tuning the Eg of BFN powders, which find promising applications in the fields of photovoltaic and photocatalytic devices.

Solar Cell Characteristic Studies on Metal Organic Framework/TiO2 Hybrid Solar Cell

K. Deepak; Sampathrao L. Pinjare

Advanced Materials Letters, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 9, Pages 1-5
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2020.091555

1,3,5-Triazine-2,4,6-trithiolate (TCA) coordination polymer and TiO2 metal oxide were used to prepare a hybrid solar cell. Electrochemical polymerization of TCA on copper electrode forms CuTCA metal-organic framework (MOF). The CuTCA acts as optically active and hole transport layer whereas TiO2 acts as exciton dissociation surface. The device was characterized under 100 mW/cm 2 condition in Cu/CuTCA-MOF/TiO2/Ag geometry, where copper and silver serve as bottom and top electrodes respectively. The device yield power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 0.196 with open-circuit voltage (Voc), short circuit current (Isc) as 0.161 V and 0.431 mA/cm 2 respectively. The room temperature electrical characterization of CuTCA-MOF reveals its hole mobility (µ), thermally generated hole concentration (no) and resistance as 10.16x10 -3 m 2 /Vs, 8.27x10 18 m -3 and 250 Ω respectively.

In-situ Prepared 2D Covalent Organic Framework as a Photocatalyst in the Photocatalytic-Biocatalytic Attached System for Highly Selective L-Glutamate Production under Solar Light

Pooja Singh; Abhishek Kumar; Atul P. Singh; Rajesh K. Yadav

Advanced Materials Letters, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 9, Pages 1-4
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2020.091556

Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are a class of porous organic polymers with designable and predictable platform that may provide new opportunities to develop a metal-free in-situ prepared photocatalyst by condensation method. Currently, we have designed a new class of two dimensional covalent organic frameworks (2DCOFs), which is important for further growth in this promising field for boosting selective solar chemical productions under solar light. For this scientific research work, perylene-3, 4, 9, 10-tetracarboxylic dianhydried (PDAH) and tetraaniline-4, 4′, 4″, 4‴-(ethene-1, 1, 2, 2-tetrayl) (TAET) have been attached by a condensation method first time to the fabrication of in-situ 2DCOFs photocatalyst. The photocatalyst-biocatalyst attached system urbanized using 2DCOFs as photocatalyst functions in a highly selective manner, leading to high NADH regeneration (83.68%), followed by its consumption in L-glutamate production (89.95%) from α-ketoglutarate. In this article, in-situ prepared photocatalyst has an excellent solar light-harvesting ability, band gap suitability, and highly organized π-electron channels are very applicable for highly selective solar chemical (L-glutamate) production and expected to trigger further interest in developing flexible films for solar energy transformation applications.

Molecular Dynamics and FEM Modeling of Composites Having High Thermal Conductivity

Sumit Sharma; Pramod Kumar; Ajay Kumar Diwakar

Advanced Materials Letters, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 9, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2020.091557

Nowadays there is a requirement of material that has high thermal conductivity as well as suitable electric insulating properties. Such materials are required in industries where thermal management is desirable but electrical conductivity is not required, such as substrates for electronic components and solar panels. In this study, the multi-scale modeling of epoxy (bisphenol-A) reinforced alumina composite has been performed using BIOVIA Materials Studio and Abaqus. Modeling has been done for varying volume fraction (Vf) of alumina. The properties predicted are the thermal conductivity and Young’s modulus. Heat transfer analysis has been done using Abaqus/Explicit. It was found that the thermal conductivity first increased till Vf  = 20% and then decreased. When the concentration of alumina was increased further after Vf  = 20%, the orientation of alumina particles changed from being in-plane to random, resulting in a fall in the values of thermal conductivity. In the silicon/insulator plate system, there was found to be an accumulation of heat resulting in a decrease in temperature on the bottom surface of the insulator plate. Thus, more time was taken for the heat to conduct through this system. Whereas, when the heat was transferred through the system of silicon/composite plate, no accumulation of heat in the system was observed.

Easy-Synthesis of BDA/ABDA Functionalized Hydrophilic Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Magnetic-Hyperthermia Application

Ganeshlenin Kandasamy; Atul Sudame; Dipak Maity

Advanced Materials Letters, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 9, Pages 1-4
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2020.091558

Herein, we have reported an easy process for the synthesis of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs, with a size of ~ 10 nm), where these SPIOs are surface-functionalized with novel pi-electron rich surfactants such as 1,4-benzene dicarboxylic acid (BDA) and 2-amino-1,4-benzene dicarboxylic acid (ABDA). The BDA/ABDA capped SPIOs have demonstrated well crystalline character, excellent colloidal stability, and high saturation magnetization. Moreover, these capped SPIOs have shown good heating ability in magnetic-hyperthermia studies under an alternating magnetic field at a medically suitable frequency, as compared to the previously reported SPIOs based heating-agents. Thus, the as-prepared BDA/ABDA-SPIOs can be used as promising heating agents for magnetic-hyperthermia based biomedical applications.

Electrochemical and Photocatalytic Properties of Green Nickel Oxide Nanomaterial Synthesized using Plectranthus Amboinicus Plant Leaf Extract

N.B. Arun Kumar; J. Sirajudeen; H.P. Nagaswarupa; C.R. Ravikumar; M.R. Anil Kumar; H.C. Ananda Murthy

Advanced Materials Letters, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 9, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2020.091559

We report the successful synthesis of NiO nanomaterial by combustion method using Plectranthus amboinicus plant leaves extract. The diffraction pattern and image analysis confirmed the FCC lattice structure for green NiO nanomaterial (g-NONM) with spongy, agglomerated and porous nature. The average energy band gap of g-NONM was found to be 4.10 eV. The electrode made of g-NONM exhibited excellent stability in addition to its good reversibility. The g-NONM showed superior photo-decolarisation results for AO dye solution with 33.95 % dye decolorization at 405 nm. The obtained rate constant k value of g-NONM for AO dye is 0.002933 min −1 . The prepared g-NONM electrode showed a minimum charge-transfer resistance which is possibly due to its high conductivity as supported by electrochemical impedance studies. The NiO electrode also exhibited very high alcohol sensing ability in alkaline medium as revealed during CV measurement. The best part of the study was the fast reply (3 s) of the prepared electrode in sensing the drugs at 1 mM concentration solution. In addition, g-NONM can be easily fabricated into stable electrode material for supercapacitors applications. The results suggested that g-NONM can be an efficient and cheaper material for photocatalytic, sensor and supercapacitor applications.