Issue 3

Celebrating 10th Years of Diamond Open Access Publishing in Advanced Materials  

Ashutosh Tiwari

Advanced Materials Letters, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 1-2
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2020.031481

Diamond Open Access (DOA) is a not-for-profit publishing practice that is an upgrade from the Gold model of the open access publishing policy. The diamond open access model works and sustains on the contributions of the non-profit and/or public organization(s). The DOA aims to promote not-for-profit open access publication and avoid obvious high burden on authors and readers for publishing and reading, respectively.

Cerebral Oxygenation Studies Through Near Infrared Spectroscopy: A Review

Shubhajit Roy Chowdhury; Gaurav Sharma; Yashika Arora

Advanced Materials Letters, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2020.031482

Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is increasingly becoming popular for monitoring cerebral oxygenation level by measuring the time variations in the concentrations of oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2) and deoxygenated hemoglobin (Hb). Studies on cross section of the cerebro-vascular artery suggest that impaired haemodynamics of cerebrovascular artery is followed by transient ischemic attack (TIA) and ischemic stroke. Here, cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) signifies the dilation capacity of blood vessels, and is a remarkable bio-marker for brain vascular reserve. The CVR may be effectively studied by monitoring cerebral oxygenation level, which if coupled with anodal transcranial direct current stimulation can serve as an important biomarker to classify between stroke and non-stroke patients, thereby providing for an imminent screening and monitoring tool. The neural activity of cerebral cortex may be controlled with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) where the NIRScan be used to capture CVR during anodal tDCS. The responses measured during NIRS are measured through temporal changes in HbO2 and Hb concentration — which provide more information than those available from basic fMRI. This article first reviews the general principles and progress in the development of NIRS, throwing a light on the applications of NIRS in stroke diagnosis.

Analysis of Fine Sulfoaluminate Cement by Strength and Thermogravimetric Analysis

Wajahat Sammer Ansari; Jun Chang

Advanced Materials Letters, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 1-4
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2020.031483

Sulfoaluminate cement (SAC) was considered as an eco-friendly material due to its less carbon emissions during its production. To date, no studies have been done to analyze fine SAC properties. If the carbon dioxide emissions can be controlled and fine SAC cement can be produced in a very short time by using a ball mill for 30 minutes then it will be a very economical and environmentally-friendly choice. Therefore, this research explores the influence of fine SAC at an average diameter of 2.5μm under partial replacement in conventional cement. The particle size was calculated by Malver master size 2000 analyzer according to ASTM E2651-10. The mortar compressive and flexural strength tests were performed according to ASTM C348-02 and ASTM C349-18 on conventional SAC and fine SAC partial replacement in conventional SAC. The weight losses and mass compositions were also analyzed with the help of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) according to ASTM E1142-15. In addition, the accelerated carbonation for 2 hrs and also sulfate attack effects were also analysed. It is concluded from experiments that fine SAC partial replacement at 20% under conventional SAC results in effective structure.

Characterization of the Interfacial Surface Energy for Composite Electrical Conduction Measurements using Two Full Range Percolation Threshold Models

Richard D. Sudduth

Advanced Materials Letters, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 1-12
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2020.031484

Two full concentration range percolation threshold models were evaluated for three different carbon fillers in both Nylon 6,6 and Lexan.  A new Modified Landauer Model was introduced in this study and compared with a Percolation Threshold Model recently published by this author. These models were then utilized to address how to best characterize the interfacial surface energy, gpf, for composite electrical conduction measurements using Clingerman’s data. Three different models used for calculating the interfacial surface energies, gpf, were evaluated in this study. It was found that solid measurements used in calculating the Fowkes equation for the interfacial surface energy gave the most consistent correlations. A linear correlation was found between the Fowkes Interfacial surface energy and the b constant designated as the insulation surface interaction magnitude from the new Percolation Threshold Model. In addition, three concurrent mathematical conditions were found to occur at the same concentration for both the new percolation threshold models yielding S-shaped curves in this study.  These conditions include the concentration at the Inflection Point, the concentration at the maximum slope and the maximum extrapolated percolation threshold concentration calculated at the same concentration.

Quantitative Detect of Fatigue of Membrane of Erythrocyte in Uniform Shear Field

Shigehiro Hashimoto

Advanced Materials Letters, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 1-5
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2020.031485

An erythrocyte has high deformability. In the shear field, it deforms from biconcave disc to ellipsoid, and make tank-treading motion at the membrane. When the membrane is ruptured by fatigue, contents get out from the inside of the cell (hemolysis). At the fatigue test of the membrane in the shear field, “the shear stress” as “the amplitude” and “the shear rate” × “the exposure time” as “repeat count” are critical parameters. For the quantitative fatigue test, the uniform shear field has been realized between the rotating concave cone and the stationary convex cone. With the rheoscope, deformability is evaluated with shear stress responsiveness and with critical deformation calculated from an exponential curve between the deformation ratio (the ratio between the major axis and the minor axis of the ellipsoidal shape) and the shear stress. Deformability decreases at erythrocytes of high density after shearing. The erythrocytes deformation ratio varies periodically at the double frequency of tank-treading motion of the membrane, when the erythrocyte has the sublethal damage point on the membrane. 

Ecofriendly-developed Polyacrylic Acid-coated Magnetic Nanoparticles as Catalysts in Photo-fenton Processes

Laura M. Sanchez; Pablo A. Ochoa Rodríguez; Daniel G. Actis; Verónica R. Elías; Griselda A. Eimer; Verónica Lassalle; Vera A. Alvarez

Advanced Materials Letters, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 1-5
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2020.031486

In this work, iron oxide-based magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) stabilized by polyacrylic acid (PAA) polymer were prepared and characterized as a continuation of a previous research already reported. MNPs composed by pure magnetite cores having good magnetic properties were developed, thus achieving an improvement in the modified coprecipitation method used. The photocatalytic activity of the nanoparticles towards acid orange 7 (AO7), under both radiation types, UV-Vis and LED-Vis, was tested. Pollutant degradation percentages of 64 and 37 % were obtained by using UV-Vis and LED-Vis radiation, respectively.

Evaluation of Drug Interactions with Medications Prescribed to Ambulatory Patients with Metabolic Syndrome in Urban Area

Kayamkani Abedulla Khan; Ali Mohamed AlKatsha; Mohammed Abdulghani Sarhan; Fawaz Mashaan Abuhamar; Rawaf Abdulrzaq; Aejaz A. Khan; S. M. Shakeel Iqubal; Muazzam Sheriff Maqbul

Advanced Materials Letters, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 1-4
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2020.031487

This study is planned to assess the profile of drug-drug interactions in the medications prescribed to metabolic syndrome patients and also to identify the possible predictors for potential drug-drug interactions. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from 25th Jan to 1st April 2019 to check the drug interactions in ambulatory metabolic syndrome patients in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. A sample size of 142 patients was included in the study. The prescriptions were analyzed for potential drug interactions using Lexi-Interact Online and Medscape online software to check drug-drug interactions. Results: It is observed that as an average 3.85 drug per prescription was prescribed. We observed 55 prescriptions are containing incomplete patient information that is 48.6% of prescriptions. The 62% of patients of this study were more than 60 years. We found a maximum number of prescriptions were found 4-6 drugs per prescription 60.56 % and 78.12 % interactions were moderate interaction and 3.9 % interaction found were major interactions. Conclusion: It was observed that the number of DDIs increased linearly with the number of drugs and age. The majority of interactions was pharmacodynamic in mechanism and showed moderate severity.

Fiber-reinforced Cementitious Composite: Sensitivity Analysis and Parameter Identification 

Drahomír Novák; David Lehký; Radomír Pukl

Advanced Materials Letters, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 1-5
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2020.031488

Methods and software tools used to identify the material parameters of high-performance cementitious composites are presented. The aim is to provide techniques for the advanced assessment of the mechanical fracture properties of these materials, and the subsequent numerical simulation of components/structures made from them. The paper describes the development of computational and material models utilized for efficient material parameter determination with regards to a studied composite. This determination is performed with the help of experimental data from four-point bending tests. The data is used in inverse analysis based on artificial neural networks. Sensitivity analysis plays an important role in the process. It is a part of a complex methodology for the statistical and reliability analysis of structures made of high-performance cementitious composites. The procedure also utilizes statistical simulation of the Monte Carlo type for the preparation of a training set for the artificial neural network utilized in the material parameter identification process. In the case of fiber-reinforced concrete, the simulation mainly includes tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and the parameters of the tensile softening model.

Evaluation of Drug Utilization Patterns Based on World Health Organization Drug use Indicators at Outpatients Clinics

Kayamkani Abedulla Khan; Saif Mohammed Al-ghamdi; Nawaf Mohammed Al-ghamdi; Abdullah Radwan Al-saqqa; Hashim Khalid Halawani; Aejaz A. Khan; S. M. Shakeel Iqubal; Muazzam Sheriff Maqbul; Noorulla Khan Mayana

Advanced Materials Letters, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 1-4
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2020.031489

Irrational drug prescribing is considered one of the prime challenges for the healthcare sectors worldwide, leading to baneful outcomes in patients. The World Health Organization (WHO) drug use indicators include prescribing indicators, patient care indicators and facility indicators and prescribing indicators measure the performance of health care providers in several key dimensions related to the appropriate use of drugs. Patient care indicators are used to understand the way drugs are used. To evaluate the trends and issues related to prescription, patient care and facility at outpatient clinics in Jeddah and to contrast that to the WHO drug use indicators. A Cross-sectional study conducted between January to April 2019. A total of 153 prescriptions were collected from outpatient clinics of private and governmental hospitals were analyzed according to WHO guidelines. The statistical calculations were performed using Microsoft excel software. The results illustrate that the average number of drugs per prescription was 4.56 and the percentage of encounter with antibiotics was 8.4. A comparatively encouraging observations were observed during generic prescribing as it was observed to be 54.2%, the percentage of encounters with injection was 7.8 and the percentage of drugs prescribed from essential drug list (EDL) or formulary was 92%. The prescribed drugs average number per encounter was greater than what was considered ideal according to WHO standards; the other issue found was a lower percentage of generic prescribing compared to WHO ideal value, the rest of prescribing indicators including the prescribing from the essential drug list was almost similar to the ideal value recommended by the WHO (100%).

Are Quantitatively Micro-machined Scaffolds Effective for Cell Technology?

Shigehiro Hashimoto

Advanced Materials Letters, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 1-4
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2020.031490

Biological cells adsorb on the scaffold, and show activities: migration, deformation, proliferation, and differentiation. The micro morphology (close to the cell size) on the surface of the scaffold (made by the photolithography technique) is effective for several applications: the marker to trace each cell, and the tool to control the activity of each cell. C2C12 (mouse myoblast) is used in the present study. The typical diameter of the cell is 20 μm, when it is suspended in the medium. The cell aligns along the micro step of the height (> 0.7 μm). The micro-striped groove can control the cell orientation in the flow channel. The aspect ratio of the checkered convexo-concave pattern can control the orientation of cells. When cells are cultured on the thin film (thickness 6 μm, polydimethylsiloxane) with the micro markers at the counter surface, the local contraction movement of myotubes by the electrical-pulse stimulation can be microscopically measured through the transparent scaffold.

Synthesis and Characterization of Gold Nanoparticles from Lobelia Nicotianifolia Leaf Extract and its Biological Activities

M.B. Lava; Uday M. Muddapur; B. Nagaraj

Advanced Materials Letters, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 1-4
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2020.031491

Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles is one among the best and cheap economical viable process, which is environmental friendly. The purpose of this study is to synthesis the gold nanoparticles using Lobelia nicotianifolia leaf extract and to investigate its biological activities. The synthesized gold nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, TEM, SAED, FTIR and XRD, the nanoparticles produced at maximum absorbance 532 nm. The Characterization study proved that the size and shape of AuNPs were spherical in shape, with an average size of 80 nm. Synthesized AuNPs were evaluated for various in-vitro biological studies.

Advanced Oxidations of Tartrazine Azo-dye

Mohamed A. Elsayed*; Mohamed I. Awaad; Hesham R. Tantawy

Advanced Materials Letters, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 1-5
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2020.031492

Through this research, the degradation of Tartrazine (TZ) azo-dye in synthetic wastewater solutions, has been examined under the influence of diverse experimental circumstances of ultrasound and ultraviolet irradiation. At small initial concentrations of Tartrazine (TZ) (10ppm), the photochemical process alone was considered efficient for degradation of TZ. However, in the case of sonochemical alone, the degradation continued very gently, resulted in fewer than 53% of Tartrazine (TZ) elimination after 200 min.  Whereas, the adding of an oxidant such as H2O2 leads to increasing the degradation efficiency to certain extent. Additional increasing of H2O2 over the optimum concentration decrease the degradation because of the scavenging consequence of excess H2O2.

Antifungal Activity of Salvia jordanii Against the Oral Thrush Caused by the Cosmopolitan Yeast Candida albicans among Elderly Diabetic Type 2 patients

Muazzam Sheriff Maqbul; Aejaz A. Khan; Tasneem Mohammed; S.M. Shakeel Iqubal; Abdul Rahman Ikbal; Ibrahim Ahmed Shaikh; Uday Muddapur; Mohammed Shahid Hussain; S. K. Singh

Advanced Materials Letters, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 1-4
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2020.031493

The oral thrush caused by the cosmopolitan yeast Candida albicans causes pale white cottony patches in the oral regions especially among the Immuno deficient patients. The elderly patients with the diabetes were the main victims of the yeast thrush. The objective of our investigation is to collect the clinical thrush samples from the targeted elderly patients with type 2 diabetes between the age group of 58 to 75 and determine the antifungal activities of Salvia jordanii by employing the standard microbiological technique. The results procured were excellent for the antifungal susceptibility analysis of all five types of S. jordanii essential oil extracts. The MIC and MFC values of the extracts from the Jordanian, Syrian and Moroccan origin shown the same values, whereas the Libyan and Egyptian extract shown the slightly higher values. The nature blessed essential oil extracts got the potential to combat infections as well as to treat the oral thrush. These findings indicate that S. jordanii displays adequate activity against cosmopolitan yeast C. albicans in vitro & its merits. Further analysis to treat yeast associated diseases.