Issue 2

Advanced Materials Congress Celebrating 10th Years of Establishment

Ashutosh Tiwari

Advanced Materials Letters, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 1-4
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2020.021468

In the past ten years, Advanced Materials Congress, AMC, has gone through a glorious journey. The congress has achieved a lot in a decade, and, in the upcoming decades, the AMC is all set to launch new assemblies to move further ahead in its pursuit of expanding the scope of Advanced Materials. In the AMC assemblies, the International Association of Advanced Materials, IAAM, offers education and research forums for advancing materials to global excellence. By February 2020, IAAM has successfully organized 32 assemblies of AMC in the four major continents: Europe, Asia, Australia, and America. In these ten years, the Advanced Materials Congress, AMC, has facilitated one of the largest global platforms for advanced materials researchers to discuss the trends of this field. In the new decade, it is the sincerest hope of IAAM to establish inland assemblies and forums for enriching the contemporary disciplines for the larger benefits of the society. The attempts of IAAM take a lead further to stimulate the advancement of materials towards sustainable and green world by 2030.

Secure Management of Networked Batteries for Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) Systems  

Fengling Han; Xun Yi; Rebecca Yang; Ron Wakefield; Yong Feng

Advanced Materials Letters, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 5-9
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2020.021469

This letter reviews the related research on Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) for efficient utilization of solar energy, and further clarifies the concept of networked batteries. Taking Lithium-ion batteries as an example, maximizing the energy storage is the target, which is achieved by managing the charging and discharging of the individual batteries within a network. With the optimal management of the networked batteries, buildings constructed by using PV-capable materials are expected to be energy self-sufficient, which leads to zero-carbon energy supply. It is pointed out that the real-time estimation on the State-of-Charge (SoC) of Lithium-ion battery is crucial for secure management of the networked batteries.

The Cause of 100-year Low Carbonated Concrete of the Bridge 

Ivan Janotka; Michal Bačuvčík; Lukáš Húlek; Peter Paulík

Advanced Materials Letters, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 10-17
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2020.021470

During the research study focused on 100 years, old concrete bridges in Slovakia an unexpected observation was made. Two bridges were found with a very low carbonation depth under an ordinary cement-based render coat used at the time of its construction for aesthetic reasons. The average measured value by phenolphthalein test was less than 2 mm after more than 100 years of service life in exposure class XC3 of EN 206. The remaining investigated bridges, from this period of construction, exposed to the same environment and made of concrete of comparable quality, showed significantly higher carbonation depths. Low carbonation depth, can be explained by the presence of a thin (2-4 mm) layer of the protective render coat (PRC) applied to concrete surface around 100 years ago. The place, where the PRC was of good quality was almost impermeable and the carbonation of the concrete underneath was even 0 mm. A narrow free space filled with the carbonates can cause increased non-permeability of the thin PRC creating thus the best condition for the built limestone-based (anti-carbonation) barrier with the ability to dramatically reduce CO2 penetration into the beneath concrete over time. This article is focused on the probable explanation of this phenomenon.

Organic Montmorillonite Intercalated Nano-composites Prevent Post-Surgical Associated Infections

Zahra Rezvani; Mazaher Gholipourmalekabadi; Saeid Kargozar; Peiman Brouki Milan; Masoud Mozafari

Advanced Materials Letters, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 18-21
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2020.021471

In this study, organic montmorillonite (OMMT) is a modified form of montmorillonite (MMT) in which chitosan (CS) intercalated MMT by ion exchange of sodium ions from Na/MMT with –NH3 + of CS. The structural analysis confirmed intercalation of CS into MMT layers, indicating that CS molecular chains incorporated into the MMT layers. The interlayer distance of the MMT layered was 1.128nm and in the OMMT layers enlarged to 2.365 nm. Antibacterial activity analysis showed that unmodified MMT could not inhibit the growth of bacteria. Nevertheless, after addition of the CS molecules, an increase in the interlayer distance of MMT was observed. No difference was observed between the viability of the human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) contacted to different concentrations (ranging from 0.5 to 2mg/ml) of MMT and OMMT in all time intervals, when compared with the control samples. Furthermore, neither MMT nor OMMT showed apoptosis and cytotoxicity effect on the cells. The strong antibacterial activity of the synthesized OMMT nanocomposite was also confirmed against E. coli, S. aureus, K. pneumonia and P. aeruginosa, suggesting its high potential for the prevention of post-surgical infections.

Morphology/tensile Performance Relationship for LLDPE/PP Double Gated Injected Blends

Caren Rosales; Diego Brendstrup; Celina Bernal; Valeria Pettarin

Advanced Materials Letters, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 22-27
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2020.021472

Due to the large volume consumption of plastics, the treatment of the resulting solid waste is becoming a major concern. Polyethylene and polypropylene are two of the most abundant polymers in waste. Recycling them as a blend is an attractive way to reduce the impact of plastic wastes. This work is focused on the relationship between material morphology and tensile behavior, both under static and dynamic loading conditions, of PP/LLDPE blends with varying relative content. Blends present a biphasic morphology with distinctive characteristics that depends on blend composition. Their tensile properties are significantly affected by composition and corresponding morphology: mechanical behavior varied from ductile to brittle under both quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions. The blend with the better and most reliable behavior was found to be the one with 75% of LLDPE, and in a next work it will be used to obtain a ternary composite reinforced with recycled rubber particles obtained from scrap tires.

Preparation and Characterization of Nickel Ferrite Nanoparticles via Sol-gel Method

Savithri. M. Nampoothiri; Viji. C; E. M. Mohammed; Robin Francis

Advanced Materials Letters, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 28-31
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2020.021473

Nickel ferrite (NiFe₂O₄) nanoparticles were synthesized using sol-gel method and the powdered samples were sintered at 100°C and 200°C. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) patterns were used to determine the structure of nickel ferrite nanoparticles. Obtained the lattice parameter from the XRD data and calculated the particle size using Debye- Sherrer formula. The details of the surface morphology of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) analysis. The work aims at the investigation of the dielectric properties such as dielectric loss and permittivity of Nickel ferrite nanoparticles at various frequencies and temperatures. In addition, the ac conductivity of the nickel ferrite nanoparticles was studied.

Nitrogen-doped Diamond Nanowire Gas Sensor for the Detection of Methane

Andrew F. Zhou; Xinpeng Wang; Peter Feng

Advanced Materials Letters, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 32-36
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2020.021474

Diamond-based sensors have shown great potential in the past few years due to their unique physicochemical properties. We report on the development of high-performance nitrogen-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) nanowire-based methane (CH4) gas sensors, taking advantage of a large surface-to-volume ratio and a small active area offered by the 1D nanowire geometry. The morphologic surface and crystalline structures of UNCD are also characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman scattering, respectively. By using synthesized nanowire arrays combined with 4-pin electrical electrodes, prototypic highly sensitive CH4 gas sensors have been designed, fabricated and tested. Various parameters including the sensitivity, response and recovery times, and thermal effect on the performance of the gas sensor have also been investigated in order to quantitate the sensing ability. Enhanced by the small grain size and porosity of the nanowire structure, fabricated nanowire UNCD sensors demonstrated a high sensitivity to CH4 gas at room temperature down to 2 ppm, as well as fast response and recovery times which are almost 10 times faster than that of regular nanodiamond thin film based sensors.

Manufacture of Functional Open-cell Al Foams with Recycled Al Scraps using NaCl Ball Space Holder 

Seksak Asavavisithchai; Kantapong Nantakantrong; Karnkawin Jintagetkam

Advanced Materials Letters, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 37-40
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2020.021475

Interconnected open-cell Al foams, with various fractions of recycled Al alloy scrap, have been produced using a sintering and dissolution process (SDP). The foams are suitable for various functional applications, such as heat exchangers, bone-replacement implants, interconnects, catalyst supports, and sound insulators. Firstly, the NaCl paste was pelletised, by hand, to make spherical balls of approximately 5 mm diameter. The Al alloy scrap was obtained from turning operation in lathe machine.  Porous structure was obtained after dissolution of the NaCl balls. The microstructure of Al foams was examined using SEM and EDX.  The results show that pores were uniformly distributed along Al matrix and interconnected with surrounding pores. The compressive strength of the foams with small scrap content of 20 wt.% is increased. However, when scrap content is higher, the strength is decreased, as a result of incomplete thermal bonding between Al powder and scrap particle, and excessive oxide content in foam microstructure.

Vilsmeier-Haack Transformations under Non Classical Conditions

Tasneem Mohammed; Aejaz A. Khan; S. M. Shakeel Iqubal; Touseef Begum

Advanced Materials Letters, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 41-43
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2020.021476

Anisoles and Pyridines undergo acetylation and formylation under non-classical Vilsmeier-Haack conditions. The reactants are grinded vigorously in a mortar for about 25 to 30 min at room temperature with a pestle. The introduction of formyl and acetyl groups under solvent free conditions is a unique, fast and efficient method which has not been reported in literature so far.  

New Application of Highly Vesicular Basalt from Jabel Isbil Volcano (Dhamar-Rada'a Volcanic Field), Yemen

M. R. Eraky;Mohamed Th. S. Heikal

Advanced Materials Letters, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 44-46
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2020.021477

We address a vesicular basalt sample from Jabel Isbil Volcano that is located in Dhamar-Rada'a Volcanic Field (DRVF), SE Sana'a, Yemen. The studied vesicular basalt represents the main rock type at the top-hill volcano, whereas olivine basalt and mugearite represent the foot-hill and middle-hill volcano, respectively. Therefore, the present investigation stresses on vesicular basalt after thermal treatment processes. Our measurements revealed that the samples have semiconducting behavior with high electrical resistivity. Moreover, the dielectric constant has low/constant values. Electrical resistivity reached 1.2 G.ohm.m at room temperature. The authors strongly recommend that the vesicular basalts elsewhere give rise to high economic and strategic potential of high technologies. 

An Assessment of Tribological Characteristics under different Operating Condition

Bougoffa M. Seyf Eddine; T. Sayah; Bachir Bey M. Nabil; Benouali Chahrazed

Advanced Materials Letters, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 47-51
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2020.021478

The paper evaluates and compares the friction and wear behavior of SAE-AISI 1060 steel and brass (CuZn37Pb2) at different initial surface roughness and normal load using pin-on-disc test. Tribological behavior of studied materials was analyzed in detail. Variation of coefficient of friction at different initial surface roughness and normal load has been correlated with wear loss, wear rate, track width. Experiments are carried out in normal load 3-5-8-10 N, sliding speed 0.24-0.35m/s and 0.48 m/s, wear track diameter 4-6-8-10 mm. Results show that friction coefficient, wear loss and wear rate of steel increase with track width at high initial surface roughness and normal load. For brass friction coefficient decreases with the increase of normal load. On the other hand, it is also found that wear loss, wear rate and track width increase with sliding distance. Microscopic of worn surfaces for each alloy were carried out and compared.

Functional Bi Coatings as A Perspective Material for Radiation Shields Production against Electron Radiation

Daria I. Tishkevich; Sergey S. Grabchikov; Stanislav B. Lastovskii; Dzmitry V. Yakimchuk; Denis A. Vinnik; Alla I. Vorobjova; Tatiana I. Zubar; Alex V. Trukhanov

Advanced Materials Letters, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 52-56
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2020.021479

Currently, medicine uses a large number of devices and sources of ionizing radiation, which have a dangerous effect on workers in medical diagnostic rooms and patients. Human organs are very sensitive to the damaging effects of radiation. The commonly used material for radiation protection proposes is lead. In recent years, bismuth deposition has become an interesting subject for the electrochemical community because of its unique properties. There are a limited number of authors dealing with Bi films onto metallic substrates by electrochemical deposition. The conditions of Bi electrodeposition and the structure of Bi coatings were examined. The shielding efficiency of Bi coatings under electron irradiation with 1,6–1,8 MeV was measured. The electron beam attenuation coefficient was estimated by the changing of current-voltage characteristics of semiconductor test structures which were located with and without shields. It has been determined that optimal shielding efficiency and mass-dimensional parameters have Bi shields with 2 g/cm 2 mass thickness and 156 shielding efficiency.  

Effects of Silica Modified NiFe2O4 on the Dielectric and Electrical Properties of NiFe2O4 filled Poly (methyl methacrylate) Composites

Srikanta Moharana; Anjali Kujur; Sudhir Minz; R. N. Mahaling; Banarji Behera

Advanced Materials Letters, 2020, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 57-62
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2020.021480

Nickel ferrite [NiFe2O4 (NFO)] nanoparticles were synthesized using a simple precursor based chemical route and modified with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) to form SiO2 layer adsorbed on the NFO particles (SiO2@NFO). Based on the nanoparticles, the SiO2@NFO-PMMA composite films were prepared embedded with SiO2@NFO nanoparticles in a poly (methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) matrix. The properties of the composites were characterized extensively using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, dielectric and electrical measurement. FTIR analysis showed that the SiO2 groups had been successfully introduced into the NFO nanoparticles. The SEM images of the SiO2 adsorbed NFO nanoparticles had better dispersion in the PMMA matrix than the unmodified one. The SiO2 modified NFO-PMMA composites had much higher dielectric constant and better suppressed dielectric loss than the other two phase composite systems. The maximum dielectric constant was up to ≈ 67 while the dielectric loss was controlled below 0.5. This study suggested that the SiO2 modified NFO-PMMA composite films with high dielectric constant and low loss might be promising candidates for application in microelectronic engineering.