Issue 9

Healthcare informatics driven nanotechnology

Ashutosh Tiwari

Advanced Materials Letters, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 9, Pages 610-610
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2019.1009

Nanoinformatics has potential to accelerate advancement goals of nanomedicine for mass healthcare. Recent introduction of transformative adoption of information science and technology, machine learning and artificial intelligence for techno-community-wide best practices lead focused nanoinformatics. The new approaches to discovery and innovation for broader understanding of the medical science gaps via generating multi-scale simulations has articulated the key concepts behind complex problems related to cross-cutting issues of biomedical systems.

Brief Review: Simulation of Novel Systems Using Duality Quantum Algorithm

Chao Zheng

Advanced Materials Letters, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 9, Pages 611-613
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2019.9908

In this article, we review the recent works of quantum simulation of novel systems briefly, the parity-time-reversal-symmetric (PT-symmetric) quantum system and the Yang-Baxter-equation (YBE) system, using duality quantum algorithm. Duality quantum algorithm studies the linear combinations of unitary operators, making it possible to simulate non-unitary evolutions of novel quantum systems. A PT-symmetric quantum system is a typical non-Hermitian system of which the evolution is not unitary and cannot be simulated directly by a conventional quantum computer. A recent work by C. Zheng has established a theory to simulate a general PT-symmetric two level system by duality quantum computing. The other typical example is the YBE quantum systems, of which the evolutions can be both unitary and non-unitary. C. Zheng and S. J. Wei described a theory that the two hand sides of the YBE can be simulated efficiently by the duality quantum algorithm in their recent research. Perspectives of future applications are expected at last. Copyright © VBRI Press.

Significant Quality Parameters of Finishing Technology in Offset Printing on Solid Board Boxes Depending on the type of Material

Marta Hurka; Magdalena K. Wyrwicka

Advanced Materials Letters, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 9, Pages 614-618
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2019.2118

The research in the field of solid board boxes will be focused on defined the significant quality parameters of the refinement of printing according to the type of raw material used in the process. Products that do not meet the quality requirements harm the interests of the company and above all are dangerous for the consumer. The result may be loss of trust from the side of customers, spoiled reputation and costly withdraw from the market all the final defective products. Detecting defects at an early stage of the process can have a positive impact on production schedules and avoid unnecessary additional costs. To packaging requirements belongs: quality, logistic, economic, promotional and environmental requirements. Quality parameters are determined by the actual state of the enterprise, its surroundings and many other factors such as: the feature of raw materials and the applied printing processes, the way of storage, transport. Described and evaluated will be parameters such as functional characteristics of the final product, features complementary to basic, reliability, practicality, conformity with standards (standards concerning packaging, quality of packaging, biodegradable packaging, act of 11.05.2001 on packaging and packaging waste), product durability, aesthetics. The experimental procedure used in the research will be spot score of qualitative characteristics of the different type of raw materials such as: GD (recycled cardboard), GC1 (coated cardboard with white bottom), GC2 (coated cardboard with cream bottom). In the work, printing processes of the printing refinement such as varnishing, hot stamping, cold stamping, embossing, die-cutting, folding and gluing will also be indicated in order to characterize the most important attribute of packaging, packaging design form, packaging functions, classification of packaging regarding to the criteria which are necessary to examine quality parameters. The conclusion of the research will be the comparison of significant quality parameters on different types of refined packages on different raw material used for production. Copyright © VBRI Press.

Generation of entanglement in spin states of Rydberg atoms by chirped optical pulses

Svetlana A. Malinovskaya; Elliot Pachniak

Advanced Materials Letters, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 9, Pages 619-621
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2019.9906

Quantum entanglement is a crucial resource in many quantum information and quantum communication tasks. In this work, we present a quantum control methodology to create entangled states of two basic classes, the W and the GHZ. A chain of 87 Rb atoms in an optical lattice is considered interacting with laser pulses to induce two-photon excitations to Rydberg states having a specific magnetic quantum number. Generation of the W and GHZ three-atomic states is demonstrated via the mechanism of the two-photon adiabatic passage in collective states implying the overlapping chirped pulses and the interplay of the Rabi frequency with the one-photon detuning and the strength of the Rydberg-Rydberg interactions. Copyright © VBRI Press.

Matrix and Variant Transformations Simulate Statistical Canonical Ensembles from Fock to Poissonian States of Random Sequences

Jeffrey Zheng; Yamin Luo; Xin Zhang; Chris Zheng

Advanced Materials Letters, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 9, Pages 622-626
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2019.9911

From a quantum statistical viewpoint, four typical quantum states are Fock, Sub-Poissonian, Poissonian and Super-Poissonian states. Quantum interactions are among Fock and Poissonian states. Using quantum statistics, model and simulation, this paper propose two models: matrix and variant transformations: 1. MT Matrix Transformation – eigenvalue states; 2. VT Variant Transformation – invariant states to analyze three random sequences: 1) random; 2) conditional random in a constant; 3) periodic pattern.  Four procedures are proposed. Fast Fourier Transformation FFT is applied as one of MT schemes and two invariant scheme of VT schemes are applied, three random sequences are used in M segments, and each segment has a length m to generate a measuring sequence. Shifting operations are applied on each random sequence to create m+1 spectrum distributions. Better than FFT, VT can identify Fock, Sub-Poissonian, Poissonian states in random analysis to distinguish three random sequences as three levels of statistical ensembles: Micro-canonical, Canonical, and Grand-Canonical ensembles. Applying two transformations, quantum statistics, model and simulation of modern quantum theory and applications can be explored. Copyright © VBRI Press.

The Vortex Glass-Liquid Transition in Fe1.02Se Crystal

Elena Nazarova; Krastyo Buchkov; Armando Galluzzi; Konstantin Nenkov; Massimiliano Polichetti; Gunter Fuchs

Advanced Materials Letters, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 9, Pages 627-632
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2019.0010

The vortex-glass (VG) to vortex-liquid (VL) transition is studied in flux-grown Fe1.02Se crystal with nanosized hexagonal phase inclusions. These non-superconducting impurities effectively pin the vortices and shift lightly the irreversibility line to higher fields and temperatures in comparison with single crystal. It is shown that the interplay between vortex pinning and thermal fluctuations enable the observation of VG-VL transition. The existence of this transition was proved by the scaling presentation of current-voltage characteristics at two different magnetic fields. The obtained scaling parameters are practically field independent. The values of the dynamic z exponent are in the range predicted by the VG model, while the values of static ν exponent are a little smaller. This is not considered as a lack of the universality of the model, but rather as a consequence of the type of pinning and special domain morphology of the crystal resembling the granularity in polycrystalline samples. Copyright © VBRI Press.

Magnetic Properties of Intercalated Gr/Ni (111) System

Sergey M. Dunaevsky; Evgeniy K. Mikhailenko; Igor I. Pronin

Advanced Materials Letters, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 9, Pages 633-636
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2019.0021

Intercalation of graphene (Gr) with transition metals is perspective for creating magnetic tunnel junctions and structures of the type graphene/ferromagnetic metal/substrate with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA). The paper presents the results of first-principle calculations of the magnetic properties for Gr/Fe (Co)/Ni (111) systems. Ab initio calculations of the electron spectrum of the systems were performed in the framework of the spin density functional theory (SDFT). Kohn-Sham single-particle spectra were used to determine total energies of the systems for different spin quantization axes, partial and total densities of the electron states, and also magnetic moments of all atoms. Then, using these magnetic moments, the energies of dipole-dipole interaction were obtained and the magnetic crystalline anisotropy (MCA) of the systems was studied. Copyright © VBRI Press.

Functionalized Nano Carbon for excellent Microwave Absorption at GHz Frequency

Avanish Kumar Srivastava; Bhumika Samaria; Smita Soni; Anuj Shukla; Umesh Kumar

Advanced Materials Letters, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 9, Pages 637-642
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2019.0027

In the present study, nano carbon (NC) was chemically functionalized by refluxing in nitric acid for 6 h to form acid functionalized NC (FNC). TEM, XRD, FTIR, Raman, N2 BET surface area and dc electrical conductivity characterizations confirm the functionalization and formation of surface oxygen functional groups, which in turn increase the hydrophilicity of FNC, thus rendering them solution processable. The basic framework of NC did not get change as confirmed from different characterization techniques. FNC were dispersed in an epoxy matrix by a solution blending method with different FNC loading levels (5, 7.0, 10, 12& 15 wt %). The FNC/epoxy composites were studied for electromagnetic properties in 8-12 GHz. Electromagnetic properties such as real and imaginary part of dielectric permittivity found increasing with increase of FNC loading. Reflection loss result of 10wt % of FNC composite shows RL >10 dB from 9.5 to12.0 GHz (absorption bandwidth~ 2.5 GHz) and effective absorption bandwidth (RL> 5dB) ~ 7 GHz (8-15 GHz).  As a kind of potential microwave absorption material, the FNC composites are light weight and show excellent microwave absorbing ability. Copyright © VBRI Press.

Deformation Texture Modelling by Mean-Field and Full-Field Approaches

Jurij J. Sidor;Qingge Xie

Advanced Materials Letters, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 9, Pages 643-650
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2019.0030

An analysis on modeling the rolling textures in Al alloy by means of mean-field and full-field approaches is presented in the current contribution. The mean-field simulations were performed by the Taylor-type homogenization approach, called Alamel model, which takes into account a short-range interaction between the grains in a polycrystalline system. In order to account for the intra-grain deformation phenomena, the crystal elasto-visco-plastic finite-element model was employed. The method of strain path approximation on the quality of texture prediction was likewise discussed. The deformation history was calculated with different analytical approaches and a finite element model with isotropic mechanical properties, which accounted for various degree of accuracy. It was shown that the analytical approximations accoupled with the crystal plasticity model employed are capable of carrying out texture simulations close to the one performed with the crystal plasticity model with the deformation history obtained by means of the finite element model. Comparison of modelled and experimental textures as well as analysis of qualitative texture indicators suggest that an improvement in texture simulation can be achieved by considering heterogeneities of deformation flow across the thickness and taking into account the inhomogeneous nature of deformation inside each grain. Copyright © VBRI Press.

Growth, Linear and Nonlinear Optical Studies of D-Tartaric Acid Crystal

M. Esthaku Peter; Getahun Leliso; Seblewongel Getachew; Betelhem Alemu; Tirngo Abay; Eleni Binalfeus

Advanced Materials Letters, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 9, Pages 651-655
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2019.0028

A single crystal of D-Tartaric acid, a stereoisomer of tartaric acid, has been grown by a slow solvent evaporation technique. Good crystals to be used for optical testing were harvested after multiple recrystallizations, whose maximum size is 30x20x4mm 3 . In view of finding second harmonic generation efficiency and properties supporting for a nonlinear optical device, the grown crystals were subjected to various characterizations. Firstly, the compound was confirmed by single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction analysis and thereafter further studies were undertaken. Various possible functional groups available in the grown crystalline compound were identified using Fourier transform infrared analysis and reported. The second harmonic generation, a nonlinear optical property of a crystal, was studied and compared with standard KDP crystal. The percentage of linear optical transmittance in the ultraviolet, visible and infrared radiation of wavelength ranging from 200 to 1100 nm was studied and explained in detail. Thermal studies such as Thermogravimetric and Differential thermal analysis were carried out to find the thermal stability of the crystalline material. Vicker’s microhardness testing was made on the as-grown crystalline surface to find the surface hardness, yield strength and other related mechanical properties of the crystal. Copyright © VBRI Press.

Graphene-MoS2-Au-TiO2-SiO2 Hybrid SPR Biosensor for Formalin Detection: Numerical Analysis and Development

Md. Biplob Hossain; Mehedi Hassan; Lway Faisal Abdulrazak; Md. Masud Rana; Md. Mohaiminul Islam; M. Saifur Rahman

Advanced Materials Letters, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 9, Pages 656-662
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2019.0001

In this letter, a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor is numerically investigated that used Graphene-MoS2-Au-TiO2-SiO2 hybrid structure for the detection of formalin. This developed sensor sensed the presence of formalin based on attenuated total reflection (ATR) method by observing the change of “surface plasmon resonance (SPR) angle versus the change of minimum reflectance” attributor and “the surface plasmon resonance frequency (SPRF) versus maximum transmittance” attributor. Chitosan is used as probe legend to perform the particular reaction with the formalin (formaldehyde) as target legend. Here, graphene as well as MoS2 are used as biomolecular recognition element (BRE), TiO2-SiO2 bilayer as the improvement of sensitivity and Gold (Au) as the sharp SPR curve. Numerical results are appeared that the variation of SPRF and SPR angle for improper sensing of formalin is quite negligible that confirms the absence of formalin whereas for proper sensing is considerably countable that confirms the presence of formalin. It is also shown that the sensitivity of conventional SPR sensor is 70.74% and the graphene–MoS2-based sensor is enhanced to 77% with respect conventional SPR sensor. The sensitivity is further enhanced to 79 % by including TiO2–SiO2 composite layer with respect to conventional SPR sensor. At the end of this letter, a comparative study of the sensitivity of the proposed work with the existing works is discussed. Copyright © VBRI Press.

Microstructure and Mechanical Characterization Study in the IN718/BNi-2/316L Joint by Transient Liquid Phase Bonding Process

M. Salmaliyan; M. Shamanian

Advanced Materials Letters, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 9, Pages 663-670
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2019.0044

In this research, the relationship among TLP bonding microstructures, mechanical properties and fracture mechanism of IN 718 / BNi-2 /AISI 316L joint was studied. In the first step, by changing TLP variables e.g. time and bonding temperature in the range 30-60 min and 950-1050 0 C respectively, characteristics of each type of microstructures including formation of destructive phases and homogeneity of microstructures were studied. In the second step, in order to investigate the mechanical properties and their fracture surface morphology, hardness and shear tests were accomplished. In the next stage, based on diffusion behavior of alloying elements, the relationship among microstructure, mechanical properties and fracture mechanism was studied. Results show that microstructures of bonding region were classified in three types. Type I: solid state bonding microstructure, Type II: Athermal – isothermal solidification microstructure, and Type III: isothermal solidification microstructure. It was observed that for each specific microstructure, there is one fracture mechanism or there are more that are dimples fracture resulting from precipitations within matrix, quasi-cleavage fracture resulting from dual microstructure of eutectic – isothermal solidification and dimple-tearing fracture resulting from tiny precipitations within bonding region. Copyright © VBRI Press.

Stress Fields at the Central Point of Arc Crack under Uniaxial Tension

M. M. Aish; E. H. Aish

Advanced Materials Letters, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 9, Pages 671-674
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2019.2285

In this study the stress fields under uniaxial tension of the plane with arc cut were calculated. To describe the concentration of normal and shear stresses in the areas of the crack ends, new characteristics based on equilibrium conditions were introduced.  The influence of the angle of the crack arc opening and the direction of the plane tension was studied. It was found that those factors changed the value and the stresses sign at the crack ends. The opening angles of arc cracks and tension direction promoting the development of cracks under the influence of tensile strain, tensile stresses or combination of the stresses were determined. The promoting conditions that inhibit the cracks were studied. Copyright © VBRI Press.