Issue 4

Tech-footprints for virtual medicine

Ashutosh Tiwari

Advanced Materials Letters, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 230-230
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2019.1004

The health care driven tools and solutions speed up the overall time for treatment as well as create better-enduring experiences, which is the need of the hour, at the same time. It eventually raises the standards of the health care industry across the spectrum by understanding as well as responding to customers in a systematic and logical manner. Computational and information system that mines healthcare database with improve treatment cost-effectively, seeking opportunities for growth in industry regularly. Challenges and opportunities were counterbalance by artificial intelligence (AI), information technology, 3-D printing etc. in astounding ways to encourage healthy lifestyles. Besides that, these modern tech tools and solutions have the ability to create a wide range of AI-enabled medical models, as well as develop and analyze critical data, and bear in mind, all-in-one integrated medicine for streamlined care. According to recent studies, the tech advancements not only provides key insights but also integrate modern channels too such as emails, social media and more patterns to foster better relationships. They are designed to reveal invaluable insights of digital medicine from the current trends in real time, which has the ability to empower the entire health care industry. 

Advances in corrosion inhibition materials and technologies: A review

Kandasamy G Moodley

Advanced Materials Letters, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 231-247
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2019.2199

In view of the fact that corrosion costs large sums of money and touches countless facets of human activities, every possible effort needs to be made to find ways to stop it from starting. In this regard inhibition of corrosion has become a thriving commercial activity, worldwide. Much research has been devoted to discovering newer strategies to inhibit corrosion with concomitant improvements in corrosion inhibition materials. This review will focus on the advances in materials and technologies for corrosion inhibition, with particular attention to the evolution of technologies and materials prior to the advent of coatings, the exploitation of ‘green methods’ which use anti-corrosion materials, which protect materials without fouling the environment; and the present and projected role of nanotechnology in inhibition of corrosion. This review brings together the collected wisdom of several disciplines. The latter addressed and/or are continuing to address the need for cost-effective materials to protect strategic metals used in the domestic and industrial sectors of most countries. The scope for improving the quality of materials, required for shielding these metals from the ravages of degrading agents, present in the environments of most cities, is lucidly articulated.

Ring models of atoms, molecules and nanomaterials

Pavel Osmera senior; Daniel Zuth; Anna Kucerova; Pavel Osmera junior; Monika Dosoudilova; Jan Muller; Tomas Marada; Ladislav Dobrovsky

Advanced Materials Letters, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 248-252
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2019.2223

The classical approach in particle physics is based on the fact that the electron has some parameters like charge, mass, etc. but does not have a structure. In our calculations, the electron is assumed as structured particle having magnetic properties. VFRT (Vortex Fractal Ring Theory) uses the electron, proton, and neutron as a particle with a toroidal (ring) shape, which is formed by fractal substructures connected to each other by vortex electromagnetic fields. The atomic nucleus can be built from the ring protons and neutrons. Combining knowledge of physical chemistry, evolutionary optimization, 3D graphic, programming in Python, and mathematics makes it possible to create programs for designing new nanostructure models. The first testing proposal for the nanostructure prediction program is limited to carbon structures. The aim was to verify whether the proposed program is capable of generating known carbon nanostructures, such as graphene. The following versions of the program will no longer have this limitation.

(FeCo/Ppy@C): Pt-free FeCo-Polypyrrole Nanocomposites Supported on Porous Carbon for Electrochemical Application

Francesca Fiorellino; Martina Pilloni; Andrea Ardu; Valentina Cabras; Stefano Columbu; Lisa Russo; Alessandra Scano; Guido Ennas

Advanced Materials Letters, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 253-258
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2018.2203

The synthesis and characterization of pyrolyzed carbon-supported transition metal/nitrogen (M–Nx/C) material based on FeCo alloy and Polypirrol as source of N atoms are presented. Two different synthetic protocols, a multi-step and a novel one pot single-step approach are compared. In both approaches two different Fe:Co ratio (50:50 and 75:25) were used to obtain Pt-free FeCo-Polypyrrole nanocomposites supported on porous carbon (FeCo/Ppy@C). Structural and morphological characterizations of the samples before and after pyrolysis were carried out by using X-Ray Powder Diffracion, Infrared Spectroscopy and High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy. For both approaches, nanoparticles with a core shell structure but different size and matrix polidispersivity were observed after pyrolysis when a Fe:Co 50:50 ratio was used. Bigger nanoparticles were obtained after pyrolysis in the 75:25 ratio samples, with no significant differences between the two approaches. The electrocatalytical properties of the final samples, investigated by cyclic voltammetry in an acidic electrolyte, showed the presence of a cathodic current density.

Physical and mechanical properties of microwave absorber material containing micro and nano barium ferrite  

Hashem Al-Mattarneh; Mohamed Dahim

Advanced Materials Letters, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 259-262
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2019.2226

The rapid development of electronic systems and telecommunications has resulted in a growing and intense interest in microwave electromagnetic absorber technology and microwave absorber materials. In this study, thermoplastic natural rubber barium ferrite composite was developed using micro and Nano barium ferrite filler. This paper presented the improvement of the mechanical properties of the thermoplastic natural rubber barium ferrite (TPNR-BF) composite when the size of barium ferrite filler changed from 3 um to 55 nm. TPNR was prepared as hosting material, and the barium ferrite with particle size 3 um was used as filler. Five samples of the composite were prepared with barium ferrite content range from 0% to 20% by an increment of 5%. The same procedure was used to prepare five samples using barium ferrite with a particle size of 55 nm. Physical and Mechanical properties of the composite were determined such as density, SEM, hardness, stiffness, tensile stress, and strain. Also, the magnetic properties and hysteresis diagram and SEM were evaluated for both composites barium ferrite types. The results indicate that all mechanical properties decline with the increasing BF content due to the increasing size of the weak interfacial zone between the polymer and the filler. This trend could be enhanced by replacing the micro barium ferrite with Nanosize barium ferrite. The level of improvement in mechanical properties increases at high filler content.

Formation of nano-dispersed Cu particles during aging of a Fe-Cu alloy and dislocation effect

Lili Zhang; Hongxiang Jiang; Jiuzhou Zhao

Advanced Materials Letters, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 263-266
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2019.2119

The microstructure evolution in a Fe-Cu alloy with/without pre-deformation during the aging treatment is investigated numerically. The results demonstrate that although the Cu precipitates first nucleate on dislocations, the summit of the nucleation rate occurs in the matrix. Most of Cu particles situate in the matrix immediately after the nucleation. The preferential dissolution of Cu precipitates in the matrix occurs during the Ostwald repining stage, and the vast majority of the residual particles situate on dislocations in an overaged alloy.

Preparation of novel tragacanth gum-entrapped lecithin nanogels 

Chetna Verma; Poonam Negi; Deepak Pathania; Sadiya Anjum; Bhuvanesh Gupta

Advanced Materials Letters, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 267-269
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2019.2207

Nanogel synthesis is gaining enormous interest in a large number of applications, such as drug delivery, wound care systems and tissue engineering. In the present work, we have investigated the preparation of Tragacanth gum (TG) nanoparticles in a water-in-oil nanoemulsion system. These nanoparticles exhibit stacked core-shell type of structure in which polygonal TG nanoparticles are covered by lipid structured lecithin (LC). The resultant nanoparticles comprise of amphillic nature, i.e. the hydrophilic TG core and hydrophobic LC shell which offers interesting features of immobilization of biomolecules.

Modulation of optical properties with multilayer thickness in antimonene and indiene   

Matko Mužević; Maja Varga Pajtler; Sanjeev Kumar Gupta; Igor Lukačević

Advanced Materials Letters, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 270-274
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2019.2220

Optical properties of 2D materials can be effectively modulated by employing multilayer structures with different number of layers. Using the theoretical approach based on density functional theory we simulated relevant optical spectra of antimony and indium mono- and multilayers. We showed that the electronic band structures of antimonene and indiene possess numerous tracking bands enhancing the transition probability. Therefore, high absorption coefficients are found. Modelled multilayer nanostructures of antimonene and indiene experience a red-shift of absorption bands. Antimonene exhibits an optical directional anisotropy regarding the absorbance coefficient and reflectance spectrum for different nanolayer thicknesses. Indiene possesses very high reflectance and refractive index in the visible and IR spectrum which can be effectively modulated by the number of layers. Our work shows that antimonene and indiene multilayers harbour untapped potential for the optical applications at the nanoscale.

Bi-doped CH3NH3PbI3 effective masses and electronic properties research: A theoretical study using VASP

Liping Peng

Advanced Materials Letters, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 275-278
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2019.2232

We calculated the effective masses and electronic properties of Bi-doped CH3NH3PbI3 perovskites as a thermoelectric material using the VASP functional. The Bismuth doping concentration of 11.1%, 20%, 33.3% corresponding band gaps are 1.46. 0.75, 0.56 eV, respectively. The effective masses of carriers and the band gaps decrease with the doping concentration addition. We found that the structure of Bi as an interstitial atom doped MAPbI3 were much more stable than undoped one by the crystal systemic energy, and the Bi doping made the Fermi Level shift close to the bottom of conduction band, leading to charge carrier close to the Fermi level, resulted in the higher electrical conductivity. Moreover, Bi doping produced a smaller electron effective mass with doping concentration addition, increasing the MAPbI3’s mobility. As a result, the Bi-doped MAPbI3 could simultaneously enhance the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient. Our results showed that Bi doped MAPbI3 is a promising approach to develop thermoelectric and photovoltaic properties in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite materials.

Novel synthesis of Pd nanosheets used as highly sensitive SERS substrate for trace fluorescent dye detection 

Tran Thi Bich Quyen; Doan Van Hong Thien; Bui Le Anh Tuan

Advanced Materials Letters, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 279-283
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2019.2206

In this work, a simple and effective method has been developed to synthesize Pd nanosheets that were successfully employed by reducing the Pd salt precursor in N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF), cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and lemon extract in the presence of Tungsten hexacarbonyl with different reaction conditions (e.g., temperature, reaction time). It indicates to be an eco-friendly, simple and novel method for the synthesis, providing a cost-effective and efficient route for the Pd nanosheets’ synthesis. The Pd nanosheets were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was also demonstrated that the Pd nanosheets were both highly SERS-active and stable. Results show that Rhodamine 6G (R6G), used as a fluorescent marker, could be detected over a wide concentration range from 10 −13 to 10 −8 M, with the lower limit of detection being 10 −13  M.

Silver nanoparticles mediated by extract of Guar plant (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba), and evaluation of their photocatalytic and antibacterial properties

Elias E. Elemike; Saiyed Tanzim; Anthony C. Ekennia; Damian C. Onwudiwe

Advanced Materials Letters, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 284-293
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2018.2198

The green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Cyamopsis tetragonoloba plant extract and their photocatalytic and antibacterial properties is reported. Three precursor concentrations of 1 mM, 2 mM and 5 mM were used, and at two different ratios of 1:5 and 1:10 plant extract to the precursor. The formation of the nanoparticles was followed by the periodic study of surface plasmon resonance using the UV-visible spectroscopy, which revealed the formation of nanoparticles with regular bands after 45 min. of reaction. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to study the functional groups present in the plant biomolecules which aided the reduction and stabilization of the nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy analysis and X-ray diffraction pattern showed the particle sizes and crystalline structures, while the zeta potential values indicated the stability of the nanoparticles. The 5 mM concentration gave the largest particle sizes of about 12.90 nm and the most stable particles. The photocatalytic properties of the particles studied using Methyl red showed a low efficiency of 17.85% degradation achieved under 2 h. The antibacterial potency of the nanoparticles was screened against some gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. The results showed that the nanoparticles have good antibacterial activities.

Study of TiO2 nanofibers prepared by electrospinning technique

Victor Jaya Nesamony; Namagal Selvan

Advanced Materials Letters, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 294-297
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2019.2213

The nanostructured material properties are different from the bulk materials. Nanofibers are widely studied for many applications like tissue engineering, wound dressings, electronics, storage, catalysts, protective clothing, sensors, and cosmetics. In this study, pure form of one-dimensional TiO2 nanofibers have been successfully obtained by electrospinning technique and TiO2 nanopowders are synthesized by a conventional Sol-Gel method followed by high-temperature calcinations. The as-obtained products are characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy-Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) spectroscopy. The XRD results reveal the crystallite size of the synthesized material. SEM images depict the formation of nanopowders and nanofibers. EDX studies confirmed the presence of Ti and O in the prepared samples.

Determination of leachate pollution content in soil using in-situ dielectric measurement  

Mohammed Dahim; Rabah Ismail; Hashem Al-Mattarneh; Randa Hatamleh

Advanced Materials Letters, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 298-301
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2019.2253

This paper presents the development of an electromagnetic probe to accurately measure the soil electromagnetic properties such as dielectric constant and loss factor in the field. The in-site dielectric probe sensor is designed and methods have been developed to calibrate and validate the accuracy of the sensor in measuring dielectric properties of the material. Clean saturated sandy soil material with porosity 40% was used. The soil samples were contaminated by leachate from municipality solid waste from the landfill site. Five levels of leachate contamination were prepared, ranging from 0% to 10%. Dielectric properties of soil polluted sample were measured using the proposed in-site dielectric sensor. Dielectric properties of contaminated soil were evaluated at a different frequency and leachate content. The result showed that both dielectric constant and loss factor decree with increasing frequency due to the reduction of conductance current at high frequency. Also, the result showed that the dielectric properties of leachate-contaminated soil decrease with increasing leachate content while the loss factor increase with increasing leachate content. Mathematical models were developed to determine the relationship between soil dielectric constant, loss factor and soil leachate pollution content.