Issue 7

Transforming Paradigm of Artificial Intelligence for Scalable Clinical Healthcare

Ashutosh Tiwari

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 7, Pages 1-3
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2021.071642

Artificial intelligence becomes useful technology with enormous capacity and performance. Although it’s based on theoretical construct having extensive processing power for larger datasets. AI & machine learning algorithms strengthen the medical research and revolutionized the healthcare sector. In AI based system, prediction models are developed to identify key variables in any input datasets. Although, accuracy in the clinical healthcare is the major challenge for computer-based diagnosis and treatment process. Therefore, substantial improvement required for clinical identification due to risk associated with clinical complexity of the disease.

A Review on Harnessing Nanomaterials as Promising Materials Interface

Bindu Mangla; Vitashi Kaul; Nitika Thakur; Sudheesh K. Shukla

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 7, Pages 1-16
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2021.071643

Nanoparticles (NPs) are strong colloidal particles with diameters ranging from 1nm–100 nm. They comprise of macromolecular materials and can be utilized therapeutically as adjuvant in immunizations or as medication transporters. In this paper two fundamental sorts of nanoparticles are discussed i.e., metallic nanoparticle and polymeric nanoparticle. Metallic nanoparticle is nano-sized metals with measurements (length, width, thickness) inside the size range of 1nm - 100nm. The properties, advantages, disadvantages and characteristics of metal nanomaterials are discussed in brief in this review. Polymers are the most common materials for constructing nanoparticle-based drug carriers. Polymers used to form nanoparticles can be both synthetic and natural polymers. This review summarizes the synthesis and fabrication of nanomaterials. It describes about synthesis of metallic and polymeric nanomaterials as well as synthesis of quantum dots. It gives insights of fabrication of nanomaterials. Applications of nanomaterials are also included in this review mainly focusing on biosensor, gas sensor, wastewater treatment and environmental applications. The tunable surface and optical properties of nanomaterials make the perfect contender for biosensing including the analysis of ailments, cellular imaging of cancerous cell and so on. Gas sensors have been utilized in numerous applications like monitoring the oxygen content in fuel mixture, observing food decay, health monitoring etc. Nanomaterials offer the potential for the productive expulsion of pollutants and biological contaminants thus extremely valuable in environment and wastewater treatment. Nanomaterials are highly recommended in future for these properties, mainly for their use in healthcare sector.

A New Epidemic Spreading Model to Predict the Spread and Accumulation of Corona Virus (COVID-19) Positive Cases as a Function of Time

Richard D. Sudduth

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 7, Pages 1-8
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2021.071644

Recently an article describing a new model to predict the dominant S shaped curve of the percolation threshold for electrical conducting composites was published by this author. This model was essentially the first to successfully address to whole concentration range for electrically conducting composites with the same model. Several possible applications where this new percolation threshold model might also be applicable were indicated in this article. One of these applications was the spread of disease in a population during a disease epidemic. At this point, this new Epidemic Spreading Model has been successful in predicting the spread of the Corona Virus (COVID-19) in the United States from the beginning of the accumulation of positive cases on January 22, 2020 using Corona Virus (COVID-19) data collected by Johns Hopkins University.  Interestingly, this model also appears to be able to separate the disease propagation from the disease mitigation. This model has also been reasonably successful in predicting the spread of the Corona Virus (COVID-19) worldwide as well. In addition, when the model values for the magnitude of the separate populations were neutralized it was apparent that the growth of the epidemic in the USA was significantly greater than that experienced by the World data.

Green Synthesis of ZnO and Ag-ZnO Nanoparticles using Macrotyloma Uniflorum: Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity

Raghavendra K. Sali; Malatesh S. Pujar; Shivaprasadagouda Patil; Ashok H. Sidarai

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 7, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2021.071645

In this work, using Macrotyloma Uniflorum leaves an affordable and eco-friendly, ZnO and Ag-ZnO metal oxide nanoparticles were reported. Ensuing ZnO and Ag-ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by UV–visible spectroscopy, FT-IR Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, and Dynamic Light Scattering. The green synthesized ZnO and Ag-ZnO nanoparticles comprise an average size of about 120.16 nm and 91.17 nm respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of these ZnO and Ag-ZnO nanoparticles and mixtures thereof, Ag-ZnO, were determined on B.subtilis, Streptococci and E.coli cultures. MIC and their antimicrobial activity were studied in vitro; both types of nanoparticles showed high antibacterial activity. Also, it has shown excellent results with MIC value of 62.5 µg/ml for antibacterial activity against ZnO and Ag-ZnO nanoparticles. The Ag-ZnO nanoparticles were shown better antimicrobial effect than the ZnO nanoparticles. So, we can strongly suggest these green synthesized nanoparticles as a potent agent for biological applications.

Feature Behavior of Resistivity in Bi Foils Obtained by a Melt Spinning Method

Gennadiy N. Kozhemyakin; Stanislav Y. Kovalev

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 7, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2021.071646

Bi foils with 9-40 µm thicknesses were obtained by a melt spinning method. The microstructure and resistivity in Bi foils at cryothermal treatment have been studied. The foil samples were characterized using XRD to identify the plane orientations and SEM to observe the morphology. The resistivity of Bi foils was measured by two-point probe method at temperatures of 77-300 K using a laboratory cryostat. The formation of Bi polycrystalline foils with a specific orientation allowed us to discover SMSC (Semimetal-Semiconductor Transition) in Bi foils with a 9 µm and 11 µm thicknesses at temperatures of 180-220 K. It was observed that cryogenic cycling increases the resistivity in Bi foils by a factor of 6-19. The experimental results showed that cryothermal treatment provided exfoliation of Bi bilayers with appearance charge carriers and surface conductivity in Bi foils that can be used for real applications in microelectronic components.

Thermomagnetic Properties of Metal and Metal-oxide Nanoparticles

Ratan Lal Jaiswal; Brijesh Kumar Pandey

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 7, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2021.071647

Variation of thermomagnetic properties of nanoparticles are the matter of great debate. To develop a suitable model for the study of magnetic properties, the size and shape dependent magnetic properties such as Curie temperature (TC), Neel temperature (TN) and magnetization (MS) of magnetic nanoparticles (Fe, Ni, Co, Fe3O4, NiO, CoO, CuO, Ho and CoFe2O4) have been studied. In the present work, bond energy model has been used with the concept of dangling bond and its effect on the surface of nanoparticles. It is observed that the introduction of packing fraction of materials to this model supports the experimental facts. The obtained results have been explained by considering the concept of dangling bond at the surface of nanoparticle and packing fraction of crystal. It is observed that these magnetic properties decrease with reducing size of nanoparticles and the available experimental data are in good agreement with present theoretical model. The validity of present model encourages us to predict the behaviour of thermomagnetic properties of other nanoparticles.

Effect on Structural, Electrical and Temperature Sensing behavior of Neodymium Doped Bismuth Ferrite

A. K. Sahu; Priyambada Mallick; S. K. Satpathy; Banarji Behera

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 7, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2021.071648

Synthesis of polycrystalline samples of Bi1-xNdxFeO3 [x = 0.5, 0.6, 0.7 and 0.8] were demonstrated following solid-state reaction method at high temperature. The structural properties of the sample were confirmed through the X-ray diffraction technique. The dielectric study of the compounds was performed at different frequencies in the range of 100 Hz – 10 6 Hz for various temperatures. The non-Debye type of relaxation process confirmed from impedance analysis. The materials showed a negative temperature coefficient of resistance (NTCR) behavior at various temperatures and frequencies. AC conductivity of the materials with frequency at different temperatures satisfied the universal power law of Johnscher. Thermistor constant (β), sensitivity factor (α), and stability factor for all the samples were calculated and confirmed the characteristics of NTC thermistor.

Novel Green Chemistry Synthesis of Nano-Hydroxyapatite using Soya Milk as a Natural Stabiliser

Sreedevi Nimishakavi; V. Madhusudhan Rao; Tarun Babu M; A. K. Singh

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 7, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2021.071649

Present work describes a novel green chemistry synthesis of Nano – Hydroxyapatite (HAP) using Soya Milk (SM) as a Natural Stabiliser. The HAP is a biocompatible material and widely used in orthopaedic and dental applications. Nano-HAP powders are characterized using XRD, SEM, EDS and FTIR. These results show that the nano- HAP powders obtained by Green Chemistry Synthesis using Soya Milk (SM) as a Natural Stabiliser (NS) appear to be quite promising due to optimized pH and Ca/P ratio values that can be adapted for future research and development.