Issue 2

COVID-19: A Significant Revival Approach - Concurrent Case Study in India

Bindu Mangla; Sudheesh K. Shukla; Jagriti Narang; Nitika Thakur; Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 1-4
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2021.021598

In current pandemic, as there is no approved specific antiviral agent for coronavirus disease (COVID-19) available till to date; Indian Ayurveda has emerged out as effective tool to control the prevailing pandemic at initial stage mainly by gearing up the immune system. Convalescent plasma therapy (CPT) has shown a glimpse of hope and some case study supported the hypothesis that CPT could be a prospective treatment option. The current study reported first time on a real time case study in India along with the outcome that CPT could be potentially improved the treatment of severe COVID-19. The CPT results presented here have shown that clinical symptoms were significantly improved along with increase of oxyhemoglobin saturation, also increased lymphocytes count whereas decreased C-reactive proteins within 3 days without any severe adverse side effect.

Recent Advances in Biochar Modification for Energy Storage in Supercapacitors: A Review

Kavita Singhal; Sameena Mehtab; Bharat Bhushan Upreti; MGH Zaidi

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 1-8
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2021.021599

Biochar, also known as black carbon, has been studied extensively for both agricultural and environmental benefits. Biochar has ability to improve the soil quality, to remove inorganic pollutant and to reduce CO2 emission rate. All these qualities of biochar are based on its physical and chemical properties, such as macro and micro porosity, particle density, high surface area etc. The recent studies on biochar have been suggested that the developments in activation procedures and precursors improve its pore structure and surface properties. These improved characteristics have widened the application of biochar in energy storage devices (ESDs). Biochar as energy storage material is an important aspect to report that has not been reviewed well in recent past. This review elucidated the modification methods applied for biochar improvement and their significant applications in ESDs as supercapacitor (SCs). The brief explanations of biochar production process, modification methods that affect biochar performance, followed by potential applications in energy storage domain are also addressed.

Viral Evolution of Multiple Coronavirus Genomes on Genomic Index Maps

Jeffrey Zheng; Minghan Zhu

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 1-4
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2021.021600

Motivation: Multiple coronavirus genomes are normally organized by genomic information in a phylogenic tree to illustrate evolutionary variations. A novel scheme is represented to arrange various coronavirus genomes by two genomic indexes as 2D maps. Results: For a genome, two unique invariants of genomic indexes provide an absolute position on a 2D region in real measurements. Clustering effects are provided complementary from Phylogeny technology. Samples of seventeen coronavirus and twenty-six SARS-CoV-2 genomes from various countries are selected. This provides an efficient scheme to identify variations of SARS-CoV-2 strains for better identifications on both complicated coronavirus clusters and SARS-CoV-2 group of viral evolution in intermediate and original hosts on selective environments.

Solution Combustion Synthesis and Energy Transfer in LaMgAl11O19:Tb3+/Sm3+ Tunable Phosphor

S.P. Puppalwar; M.S. Mendhe; S.J. Dhoble

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2021.021601

Tb 3+ /Sm 3+ single as well as co-doped LaMgAl11O19 (LMA) phosphors have been synthesized by a low-temperature solution combustion method. The X-ray diffraction pattern, photoluminescence properties and energy transfer (ET) processes between rare earth (RE) ions, were investigated in detail. The mechanism of energy transfer (ET) from Tb 3+ to Sm 3+ was seen as the dipole–dipole interaction. Efficient ET from Tb 3+ to Sm 3+ ions was observed, leading to color-tunable emissions of LMA:0.02Tb 3+ , x Sm 3+ (x = 0.005 to 0.02 mol) phosphors. The efficiency of the ET gradually increased with increase in the Sm 3+ ion concentration, reaching a maximum of 78.28% at Tb 3+ ion concentration 0.02mol. The critical distance (Rc) among sensitizer and activator by the concentration quenching method was estimated to be 27.96 Å. The LMA: Tb 3+ , Sm 3+ phosphors exhibited the emission peaks in the blue ( 5 D3→ 7 FJ = 5, 4, 3, and 2), green ( 5 D4→ 7 FJ = 6, 5, and 4), and orange-red ( 4 G5/2→ 6 HJ = 5/2, 7/2, and 9/2) regions under the excitation wavelength of 375 nm. As a consequence of fine-tuning of the emission composition of the Tb 3+ and Sm 3+ ions, multicolor emitting luminescence properties can be achieved in a single host lattice LMA.

Influence of Fe3O4 and CTABr on the Rate of Degradation of Methylene Blue by H2O2

Mohd Shaban Ansari; Kashif Raees; Elham S. Aazam; M. Z. A. Rafiquee

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2021.021602

The kinetics of the oxidation of methylene blue (MB) by H2O2 in the presence of iron oxide nanoparticles has been studied. The nanoparticles of iron oxide (Fe3O4) were synthesized and characterized physico-chemical techniques. The XRD studies showed its crystalline nature. The VSM study was carried out to determine the values of the magnetic saturation parameter ~ 40.00 emu/g. The particle were of spherical shape with particle size distribution centered at 12 ± 2 nm. The FT-IR spectra indicated the presence of peaks at 585 cm -1 and 459 cm -1 due to Fe-O bond vibrations. The peak at 3424 cm -1 was assigned to the O-H stretching vibration. The H-O-H bending appeared at 1631 cm -1 . The Fe3O4 nanoparticles enhanced the rate of degradation of MB. The oxidation rate increased with the increase in Fe3O4. At pH 3, the maximum rate of oxidation of MB was observed. The rate of reaction increased with the increase in [H2O2] in the absence of Fe3O4. But in the presence of Fe3O4, the rate constant versus [H2O2] showed peaked behaviour. The CTABr increased the rate of oxidation of MB by H2O2 in the presence of Fe3O4 nanoparticles.

Effect of Sulfurization Temperature on RF Sputtered MoS2 Thin Film

V. Thiruvengadam; Braj Bhusan Singh; Palash Kumar Manna; Subhankar Bedanta

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 1-5
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2021.021603

Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is one among the transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) family which exhibits exotic physical properties at their mono-layer limit. We report a facile way to fabricate stoichiometric, crystalline and star shaped MoS2 film. In this work, ultra-thin MoS2 films were fabricated by two step process (i) RF sputtering of MoS2 target followed by (ii) sulfurization to improve stoichiometry and crystallinity. In order to study the effect of sulfurization temperature on sputtered MoS2, sulfurization has been performed at five different temperatures - 700, 750, 775, 800 and 825°C. Surface morphology of as sputtered and sulfurized MoS2 films were characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopes. Crystallinity and layer thickness of the fabricated MoS2 films were estimated by using Laser Raman spectroscopy. These results confirm that as sputtered MoS2 films are discontinuous, amorphous in nature and it crystalizes into a layered structure during sulfurization at temperature ≥ 750°C. It was observed that at sulfurization temperature of 800°C, the nucleated crystallites well grown into a star shaped crystalline MoS2 with their thickness vary between 2 and 3 mono-layers. These star shapes can provide more surface area/edges that can be exploited to enhance the efficiency of gas sensors.

Fatigue Analysis for Fe-34.5Mn-l0Al-0.76C Tidal Turbine Blades using Rainflow Algorithm

Eisa A. Almeshaiei; Ibrahim Elgarhi; Vikas Kathuria

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 1-13
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2021.021604

This study investigates the effect of the environmental conditions (seawater mean thrust force and flow velocity) on a tidal turbine for different thicknesses mathematically. This had been achieved through predicting the fatigue stresses applied on the turbine for different conditions using Rainflow algorithm. The blades of the tidal turbine should be characterized by a low roughness to reduce eddies formation downstream the seawater flow. Fe-34.5Mn-l0Al-0.76C alloy had been selected in this study. Obtained results showed that, increasing thickness of the blade resulted in increasing the turbine lifespan for each studied flow velocity and thrust forces. However, increasing the flow velocity is predicted to increase the thrust forces due to the wake region formed downstream the flow leading to increase the fatigue stress on the blade. Consequently, the blade thickness should be optimized based on the geographical location decided to be installed by a turbine. As the geographical location effects on the environmental conditions significantly, which should be considered during the design stage to prevent fatigue failure of the turbine. Optimizing the blade thickness would help in maximizing the energy conversion efficiency of the turbine as well, as a lightweight blade would be able of generating electricity higher than heavy ones.

Modelling for the Study of Thermoelastic Properties of Nanoparticles

Shridhar Pathak; Brijesh Kumar Pandey; Ratan Lal Jaiswal

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2021.021605

In the present work, we have proposed a very simple model to predict the thermoelastic properties of nanosolid, nanowire and nanofilm of Selenium, Copper, Silver, Lead, Tin, Zinc and Nickel elements with the variation of temperature at their different sizes. In our study, it is observed that compression (V/V0) increases with temperature in nanospheres, nanowires and nanofilms of the considered elements. The rate of increment is the highest for nanosolid. We also found that the compression decreases with an increase in size. The thermal expansivity and bulk modulus vary with shape and size and shows significant deviation in thermoelastic parameters.

Potato Starch Edible Films as Environmentally Friendly Carriers for Model Drug: In vitro Release Study

Fateh Eltaboni; Farah Alfaqih; Salema Aldrasey; Amira Alhodeary; Anas Almaghrabi

Advanced Materials Letters, 2021, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.5185/amlett.2021.021606

Starch is a vital plant polymer used in thousands of food and non-food products. Researchers have made great efforts over the past 20 years to develop ingredients based on nature which enhance starch texture and nutritional values. Starch has many non-food applications, ranging from body care to medicinal applications, among its uses in other foodstuffs. Since starch is sustainable and environmentally friendly material, in many chemical applications, including plastics, detergents and glues, it can serve as a good substitute for fossil-fuel components. This work aims to introduce edible starch films-based carriers for supporting the release of fluorescein as a model drug. Physical modification for potato starch carriers (PSS) was done by incorporating glycerol and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) molecules. Fluorescein dye was incorporated in edible films to investigate the amount of release by UV-vis technique. It was found that PSS-LDPE is spread better than LDPE at physiological temperature and PSS dissolution is also appropriate at this temperature. While PSS formed faster edible film than LDPE and PSS-LDPE, it decayed within 3 days. The amounts of dye released from PSS and PSS-LDPE films were higher than that of fluorescein dispersed in starch suspension in buffer solution (pH 7.5) at 37 o C.